ACPA Concrete Pavement Progress - Winter 2022-23


Concrete Pavement Progress is the official magazine of the American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA). ACPA is the national trade association for the concrete pavement industry. The primary mission of the ACPA is to lead the promotion of concrete pavement, and align its members, chapter affiliates, and technology partners for effective concrete pavement promotion, advocacy, and technical support on behalf of the concrete pavement industry. Founded in 1963, ACPA is the world’s largest trade association that exclusively represents the interests of those involved with the design, construction, and preservation of concrete pavements. Copyright © 2023 by the American Concrete Pavement Association, Rosemont, Illinois. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced or distributed electronically or mechanically, either in whole or in part, without the express written consent of the American Concrete Pavement Association. AMERICAN CONCRETE PAVEMENT ASSOCIATION 9450 BRYN MAWR AVE., STE. 150, ROSEMONT, IL 60018 phone: 847-966-2272 fax: 847-966-9970 WWW.ACPA.ORG TABLE OF C O N T E N T S ACPA STAFF Laura O’Neill Kaumo President & CEO Andy Gieraltowski Chief Operating Officer Amber Davis Events Coordinator Eric Ferrebee, PE Senior Director of Technical Services Valerie Kliment Assistant Accountant Tim Martin, PE Engineering Services Consultant Anna McMullen Director of Membership & Chapter Relations Gary Mitchell, PE Chief of Engineering & Construction Chrissy Mysko Marketing Manager Larry Scofield, PE Director of Pavement Innovation EDITORIALS Sheryl S. Jackson For ACPA ADVERTISING & DESIGN LLM Publications 503-445-2220 800-647-1511 President Stephen Bloss Sales Representative Grandt Mansfield Design & Layout Jon Cannon 2023 BOARD OF DIRECTORS Steve Friess, Chairman Milestone Construction LP Ernie Peterson, 1st Vice Chair Ash Grove Cement Company Don Weaver, 2nd Vice Chair Weaver-Bailey Contractors, Inc. Patrick Cleary, 3rd Vice Chair Holcim US Dan Rozycki, Treasurer The Transtec Group Ed Griffith, Immediate Past Chair St. Mary’s Cement Bryan Beck GOMACO Joe Finnegan GCC America Toby Knott Heidelberg Materials John Leckie Indiana Chapter, ACPA David Loomes Continental Cement Jim Mack CEMEX Tim Nash Wirtgen American, Inc. Greg Pelkey Shafer Contracting Co. Jason Reaves South Dakota Chapter, ACPA Nathan Reede Reede Construction, Inc. John Roberts Intl. Grooving & Grinding Assn. Dave Sciullo Golden Triangle Construction Rick Sniegowski K-Five Construction Jake Steinberg American Highway Jay Van Hove Koss Construction Co. Ed Wessel Hi-Way Paving THE OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE PAVEMENT ASSOCIATION / ACPA.ORG PAVEMENT PROGRESS Winter // 2022–23 FEATURED ARTICLES COVER FEATURE 08 Excellence in Concrete Pavement Awards IN EVERY ISSUE 04 A Message from the ACPA Chairman By Steve Friess 23 Legal Matters Unmarked, Mismarked, and Late Utility Relocation: Strategic and Legal Considerations By Thomas R. Olson 28 Advertiser Index THANK YOU TO OUR 2022–23 SPONSORS SILVER GOLD

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 4 WWW.ACPA.ORG As 2023 Chairman of the American Concrete Pavement Association, I am proud to welcome you all to what is certain to be an exciting year of growth and prosperity for ACPA and our industry. This year, ACPA expects to continue to stay the course fulfilling its strategic plan, while providing top-notch technical, promotional, and advocacy services for our members. With the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA) moving into its second year of funding and project planning beginning to make its way to the bidding table, the paving industry can expect some certainty, at least for a few years. While inflation has started to come down and the nation avoided a rail strike, supply chain concerns impacting a variety of industries still may cause consternation as we move further into 2023. In all, particularly with the residential market slowing, the outlook for the concrete paving market is positive. And really…why shouldn’t it be? Concrete pavement is resilient, and the projects generally display engineering excellence, so you know they’re built to last. APCA’s contractors do impressive work, as we showcase in this edition of Concrete Pavement Progress. Award winners from all over the country display their craftsmanship with overlays, divided highways, and rural, military and airport projects. 2022 was an impressive year. In addition to project excellence and craftsmanship, concrete is a material well-positioned to address our global climate concerns. Recently, Eric Ferrebee, Senior Director of Technical Services, completed the first draft of ACPA’s White Paper on Sustainability. This paper offers the first codification of the industry’s position on sustainability and makes the case for concrete’s relevancy in a climate conscious society. ACPA has worked with agencies for years on EPDs and helped educate on the importance of looking at A Message from the ACPA Chairman the entire life cycle in evaluating sustainability. ACPAs highlights the importance of including resiliency in the discussion as well. Additional resources will be unveiled during the next few months, giving the tools needed to answer questions about sustainability. While one of ACPA’s primary functions is promoting concrete paving at the state level, recognizing the role federal agencies play in impacting that goal is imperative. Recently, DoD, GSA, and NASA released a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), which proposes a Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) rule change that would require contractors to report their greenhouse gas emissions for federally funded contracts. ACPA has met with groups around the country and on Capitol Hill, to assess the potential impact this NPRM could have on the industry and assess whether it’s a departure from the good work already done with EPDs and helping contractors comply. ACPA will submit an official concrete paving industry response with comments on behalf of our members outlining the impact of the proposed FAR rule change and will continue to work with agencies across the country on truly creating a more sustainable infrastructure network. This year, you will hear me continuously advocate that we are stronger together. While contractors may be competitors at the bidding table, we align together to advocate for more funding, more opportunity, and to advance the message that concrete paving is a sustainable and resilient option for the future. I look forward to working with you to ensure that 2023 is a year of growth so that we can preserve and protect paving markets. Steve Friess Chairman, Board of Directors American Concrete Pavement Association Steve Friess Chairman, Board of Directors American Concrete Pavement Association

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CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 8 ACPA Names Recipients of Excellence in Concrete Pavement Awards The American Concrete Pavement Association (ACPA) has named 26 recipients of its 33rd Annual “Excellence in Concrete Pavements” awards, which recognize quality concrete pavements constructed in the United States and Canada. The awards program encourages high-quality workmanship, quality, and creativity in concrete pavement projects. The award-winning projects were paved by 19 different contractors. Projects are located in 18 states or regions represented by ACPA-affiliated Chapters and state paving associations. Winners were determined by 35 professionals who devoted their time and expertise to serve as judges. The program recognizes contractors, engineers, and project owners who completed outstanding projects. Contractors noted with an asterisk (*) are ACPA members. 2022

WWW.ACPA.ORG 9 Winter // 2022–23 COMMERCIAL SERVICE AIRPORTS Runway 1L-19R Reconstruction - Phase 1 Kansas City International Airport, Missouri CONTRACTOR: Ideker, Inc.* OWNER: Kansas City Aviation Department ENGINEER: HNTB SILVER Reconstruct Runway 2R/20L Taxiway Hotel & Connectors Nashville, Tennessee CONTRACTOR: Hi-Way Paving, Inc.* OWNER: BNA Nashville International Airport ENGINEER: Garver USA Runway 1L-19R at Kansas City International Airport (MCI) was originally constructed in 1958 and has had several rehabilitation projects over its 60-plus-year life cycle. The existing section that was removed averages a total of 42 inches thick between concrete and asphalt layers. The last major pavement rehabilitation project occurred in 2011, and additional rehabilitations have not proven cost-effective as the pavement experienced more rapid deterioration. Pavement distresses observed in the current section that created foreign object debris potential include joint reflection cracking, longitudinal and transverse cracking, weathering, and raveling. The project was a full-depth reconstruction of the 10,800-foot by 150-foot primary runway. It was completed in two phases over two years. The reconstruction section was 17 inches of concrete, 5 inches of econocrete, 6 inches of aggregate base, and 9 inches of treated subgrade. A total of 103,060 square yards of concrete were used on the runway, and 15,550 square yards were poured for the west runway shoulders. The total cost of the project was $20.4 million, with concrete costs equaling $15.2 million. The $51.7 million project at the Nashville International Airport finished five months early and under budget in spite of restrictions, supply chain disruptions, and rising costs due to COVID-19. Initially constructed in 1980, Runway 2R/20L—the airport’s main landing runway— was deteriorating due to settlement that resulted in constant maintenance, including pressure grouting, panel replacements, spaII repairs, and joint resealing. This project consisted of the full removal and reconstruction of the runway, the full-length parallel taxiway, six taxiway connectors, and blast/turn-around pads at the ends of the taxiways. During the preconstruction process, Hi-Way offered value engineering options to reduce the project duration and cost by altering the phasing and constructing concrete shoulders in lieu of the specified asphalt shoulders due to the high price of FAA-spec asphalt. This change in schedule and shoulder pavement design resulted in savings of $1 million to the airport while reducing the project duration from 20-plus months to 15-plus months. The 16-inch pavement required 262,000 square yards of PCCP. HiWay planned ahead for material shortages by acquiring all of the steel needed for the project months prior to paving and strategically storing it along the 8,000-foot runway to reduce handling costs during construction. GOLD

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 10 WWW.ACPA.ORG CONCRETE PAVEMENT RESTORATION Interim Expansion of RW 15 Hold Bay and Associated Pavement Improvements Washington, District of Columbia CONTRACTOR: Lagan Construction, LLC* OWNER: Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority ENGINEER: RDM International, Inc.* SILVER I-76 Wiggins WB Pavement Rehabilitation Weld/Morgan County, Colorado CONTRACTOR: Castle Rock Construction Company* OWNER: Colorado Department of Transportation ENGINEER: Colorado Department of Transportation Parking Position 350 and Hold Bay 15 are located near the north end of Taxiway N at Reagan National Airport. Most of the concrete and asphalt concrete (AC) pavement areas were determined to be in “poor” or “very poor” condition based on the records in the previous Pavement Management System Update performed by RDM International. A future realignment for Taxiway N is planned and will impact the future geometry of Hold Bay 15, so an objective for the rehabilitation project was to improve the current functional condition and provide a minimum of five years of operational life to create ease of the proposed future realignment. Significant slab failures and structurally related distresses in the original portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement in Hold Bay 15 also make it unsuitable for the anticipated traffic following the taxiway realignment. The short-term solution was to repair the current distresses to mitigate the potential of foreign object damage hazards for five years. To expand the Hold Bay through Parking Position 350, PCC reconstruction was recommended to address future heavy aircraft use and the current slow-moving/ static loading condition. The existing AC pavement section was milled to a depth of 16 inches for the construction of a new 16-inch PCC surface on top of the existing cement treated base layer to address current surface defects for depressions and rutting. For Parking Position 350, a long-term solution was required. Rutting was a repetitive issue for the existing AC-surfaced pavement, and previous patching repairs were not effective. The projected future use of the parking position by heavier aircraft made the choice of PCC for the rehabilitation project necessary. Rehabilitating a 7-mile stretch of the westbound I-76 lanes west of Wiggins, Colorado, required removing 35,000 square yards of damaged concrete panels to their full depth and replacing them on-site with an optimized concrete mix. To improve ride and paving surface consistency, both lanes were diamond ground from the first of the project until the end. A 100-working-day time frame for the scope of work was daunting. In addition to removing and replacing damaged panels with a 1-inch asphalt bond breaker and grinding and texturing 96,755 square yards of slab, the contractor also had to saw and seal 144,917 linear feet of joints. All contractors on the project contributed to meeting the schedule, including committing full human and equipment resources. For example, four grinding machines were on-site to grind all 7 miles of the travel lanes. CRCC also removed and replaced 31 panels at their own expense to enable continuous paving for both the concrete and the asphalt bond breaker and to minimize the number of headers that required grinding. Overall, the paving schedule was the key to meeting the deadline, and all activities occurred concurrently. The schedule had the driving lanes paved first, then the passing lanes. Saw and seal happened at the front end with saw cutting of existing joints, and as the paving crew was halfway on the driving lanes, the grinders went to work. The timing of completion was key since each crew’s work followed closely to the previous crews’ work. GOLD

WWW.ACPA.ORG 11 Winter // 2022–23 DIVIDED HIGHWAYS (RURAL) US 69 Southbound Reconstruction Atoka/Bryan County, Oklahoma CONTRACTOR: Duit Construction Co., Inc.* OWNER: Oklahoma Department of Transportation ENGINEER: Oklahoma Department of Transportation SILVER US Highway 20 Black Hawk County, Iowa CONTRACTOR: Cedar Valley Corp.* OWNER: Iowa Department of Transportation ENGINEER: Iowa Department of Transportation U.S. Highway 69 It is one of the most traveled U.S. highways by freight truckers in the country, starting from the ports of Houston, Texas, going through Kansas City, Kansas, and Des Moines, Iowa. The US-69 Caney Project was a full pavement rehabilitation of the old 6.61-mile, two-lane southbound highway. The $20.6 million project was finished ahead of schedule as a result of the commitment by the Oklahoma Department of Transportation to work side-by-side with Duit Construction to quickly mitigate issues as they developed. Because Oklahoma has seen new records for heat and cold in previous seasons, the contractor proactively prepared for potential weather issues by incorporating heaters and chillers when batching concrete during harsh temperatures in the weather-impacted months. By shifting traffic onto the northbound side of the highway, the contractor could work on the subgrade and structural section with no impact from the traveling public. To further increase the speed of construction, Duit used three portable crushers to crush the existing concrete in place. The crushed concrete could then be placed in the new structural section of the pavement as an aggregate base. By crushing the concrete in place, no trucking was needed to move the broken concrete, and it was only handled once. The total number of lane miles for the project was 13.2, and 157,318 square yards of concrete were placed. Proactive planning and phasing enabled the contractor to finish 65 days earlier than ODOT planned while also accomplishing a Ride Specification/ Result using ODOT 0.0 Blanking Band, of an averaged 19.5 inch/mile and 55% of ride incentive was achieved. The Black Hawk-US Highway 20 project entailed 3 miles and 177,000 square yards of paving, including 56,018 square yards of tied concrete shoulders. Cedar Valley Corp. was able to positively impact the quality of the project before it was even put up for bid. Plan review by CVC noticed that the detour envisioned by the Iowa Department of Transportation was 5 miles long and included numerous stops and narrow lanes. Working with the City of Waterloo’s engineer, IDOT’s detour was changed. CVC’s input also resulted in the addition of two ramp entrances, two ramp exits, and four gore areas to the project to improve overall paving quality. Replacing a planned HMA patching with a thin, full-width HMA overlay for the lanes that would serve as a detour for eastbound traffic improved the route and CVC re-designed the joint detail for ramp configuration to allow for machine versus hand pours. The project also included two major innovative studies; the first was rumble strips installed with stacked saw blades instead of a regular milling head to reduce damage to pavement and create a more uniform final product. The second was a pilot project for IDOT to study potential new compaction specifications. The results of the study led to a long list of lessons learned, updated training, reporting data, and target values. GOLD

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 12 WWW.ACPA.ORG DIVIDED HIGHWAYS (URBAN) I-49 Reconstruction Jasper County, Missouri CONTRACTOR: Emery Sapp & Sons Inc.* OWNER: Missouri Department of Transportation ENGINEER: Missouri Department of Transportation The I-49 reconstruction in Jasper County, Missouri, had been needed for many years due to joint deterioration in the existing concrete pavement. The Missouri Department of Transportation designed a project where the existing concrete shoulders would remain in place. This was done to get the best value out of the cost of the project. The existing mainline was removed and replaced while minimally touching the existing subgrade. Rubbilization was achieved with guillotine breakers after the mainline was sawed from the shoulders. Paving began before all the breaking and removals were completed. In addition to the mainline concrete replacement, there were acceleration/ deceleration lanes and two loop ramps that were removed and replaced. Because MoDOT agreed to a full closure of the interstate in one direction, there was an incentive/disincentive clause in the contract to minimize the length of the full closure—$35,000 per day up to a maximum incentive of $350,000. Emery Sapp was able to work efficiently and effectively, opening the southbound lanes in just six days. A week later, the northbound lanes were closed and the work was completed in 11 days. Emery Sapp paved around the clock until the work was complete, placing 46,858 square yards. Emery Sapp achieved the entire incentive amount on the 87-calendarday project. GOLD

WWW.ACPA.ORG 13 Winter // 2022–23 MILITARY AIRPORTS Repair Taxiway Bravo Ramp (WAK008) and Repair Hot Cargo Pad (WAK006) Wake Island CONTRACTOR: Southwest Concrete Paving Company* OWNER: 772nd ESS/PKA ENGINEER: AECOM* SILVER Runway 05-23 Pavement & Airfield Lighting Rehabilitation Pope AAF, Ft. Bragg, North Carolina CONTRACTOR: R.C. Construction Co.* and Millstone Weber* Joint Venture OWNER: USACE, Savannah District ENGINEER: HDR* and Crawford, Murphy & Tilly* Joint Venture Southwest Concrete Paving (SWCP) served as a key subcontractor for the Repair Hot Cargo Pad and Repair Bravo Taxiway project. The U.S. Air Force maintains an active base on Wake Island, a tiny atoll island located approximately 2,500 miles west of Hawaii. The base encompasses the entire island, with access to the island restricted to those actively stationed on base or federal contractors working on active projects. Travel to the project location itself was a long and cumbersome journey that required a four to five hour chartered flight from Honolulu to the island that was only available once every two weeks. These flights brought in a limited number of supplies along with a fresh crew while another crew departed off the island to return home for a short break. The airfield consists of a 10,000-foot-long runway and adjacent taxiways. The project involved replacing the existing asphalt on both Taxiway Band and the Hot Cargo Pad with heavy-duty airfield portland cement concrete pavement. Due to the extreme remoteness of the project, SWCP carefully planned every aspect of the project to ensure it was a success. Most of the project materials needed to be barged in from the mainland United States, including all aggregates and required material for construction, temporary housing, batching equipment, and a water filtration system for construction water and the batch plant. SWCP was highly cautious with the quantities, not exceeding the allocated materials and not bringing excess material due to the remote location and subsequent costs. SWCP mobilized a low-profile batch plant to set up on the island. The low pro-plant was selected because of its self-erect capability, which did not require a crane for erection. Despite this option, SWCP chose to fabricate and install a 4-foot riser on the plant requiring a small on-island crane to set the drum. All cementitious materials were mobilized to the site in one phase. These products were transported in super sacks, and the entire project was paved using sack unloaders to transfer cementitious material from the super sacks to on-site storage guppies. A joint venture consisting of ACPA member companies R.C. Construction Co., Inc. and Millstone Weber, LLC completed Runway 05-23 Pavement and Airfield Lighting Rehabilitation, a design-bid-build project located at Pope Army Airfield, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Total pavement section replacement included excavation of approximately 80,000 cubic yards of material, subgrade preparation including slurry cement stabilization of 274,000 square yards, placement of 40,000 tons of recycled concrete base course for new shoulder pavement, 207,000 square yards of new cement stabilized drainage layer, and 201,000 square yards of new portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement ranging from 15 to 17 inches. As this runway is a strategic power projection platform for Defense Operations from the United States East Coast, the timeline for the runway reconstruction portion of the contract was limited to a total of 120 days. The runway was opened for full instrument flight rules (IFR) flight operations 50 days ahead of schedule. The runway was closed for construction on June 15, 2021, and officially reopened for aircraft on October 13, 2021, a total runway reconstruction period of exactly 120 days, which included grooving and installation of full IFR pavement markings. GOLD

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 14 WWW.ACPA.ORG MUNICIPAL STREETS & INTERSECTIONS (<30K SY) Fairoyal Drive Reconstruction Des Peres, Missouri CONTRACTOR: E. Meier Contracting OWNER: City of Des Peres ENGINEER: City of Des Peres SILVER 10th Ave. Watertown Reconstruction Project Watertown, South Dakota CONTRACTOR: Timmons Construction Inc.* OWNER: City of Watertown ENGINEER: Civil Design Inc. In the summer of 2021, the City of Des Peres, Missouri, undertook its largest street replacement project in decades. While a 9,000-square-yard street replacement project may not be large for DOTs or big cities, it was significant for the city of 9,200 residents. Fairoyal Drive is a mile-long neighborhood collector for over 300 homes. Due to the potential impact on residents, the previous public works administration replaced only small segments at a time. Ultimately, this delayed the needed replacements, disturbed the neighborhood repeatedly, and increased prices. The City successfully completed a larger project on Fairoyal Drive with no increased impact in the neighborhood, then budgeted to replace the remaining 9,000 square yards in 2020. Rather than just replacing the existing concrete, the project solved two longstanding resident complaints—groundwater problems that created wet yards and basements, and notoriety as the worst residential street for speeding. A new storm sewer and the option for residents to tie into it mitigated the water issues, and the incorporation of neckdowns at three locations into the design addressed the speeding issue. The City required a unique, 16-phase plan for the project. Each phase typically included four homes, and sequential phases were intentionally not adjacent to one another. This plan provided on-street parking for residents whose driveways were unusable. The contract allowed 150 calendar days for completion, with work starting immediately after Memorial Day. While the installation of the drainpipe to accommodate groundwater seepage was completed in three weeks, a labor shortage delayed the contractor’s pavement work for over one month. The use of a modified concrete mix to gain early strength and accelerate the project schedule put the contractor back on track. A project nearly a decade in the making, the City of Watertown had to work with residents who opposed the project that would widen the street to three lanes to include a center turn lane and remove much of the mature tree canopy lining the corridor to allay their concerns. During the delay, the existing asphalt street continued to deteriorate rapidly. 10th Avenue NW is a collector street that runs mainly through a residential area but ultimately is the main street to the hospital from U.S. Highway 81 and carries 5,000 vehicles per day. The project consisted of nine blocks of city residential street reconstruction. The project began at the hospital and ended at the intersection of U.S. Highway 81. The project was bid as an alternate design/alternate bid project with the asphalt section being 6 inches of asphalt on 10 inches of base course vs. 8 inches of doweled concrete on 8 inches of base course. The concrete option came in at a higher initial cost, but the City of Watertown engineering staff and city council both found it to be ultimately the best option to select the concrete pavement option. The project was divided into two separate phases. The work on each phase included existing asphalt street removal, numerous mature tree removals, storm sewer updates for one phase, new water and sanitary sewer for both phases, a new three-lane 8-inch portland cement concrete street with monolithic curb, a new sidewalk the entire length on one side, new ADA compliant ramps, and new trees to replace the removed ones. GOLD

WWW.ACPA.ORG 15 Winter // 2022–23 MUNICIPAL STREETS & INTERSECTIONS (>30K SY) US 54 and Business 54 Interchange Miller County, Missouri CONTRACTOR: Emery Sapp & Sons* OWNER: Missouri Department of Transportation ENGINEER: Missouri Department of Transportation SILVER North Teutonia Avenue, West Groeling Avenue to West Capitol Drive Milwaukee County, Wisconsin CONTRACTOR: Zignego Company* OWNER: Wisconsin Department of Transportation, City of Milwaukee ENGINEER: WSP USA The U.S. Highway 54 and Business 54 Interchange was a long-awaited project not only for the residents of the Lake of the Ozarks but also for the nearly 9 million tourists that visit the lake area each year. The project not only eliminated the existing traffic signal at one of the most dangerous intersections in Central Missouri but also improved access and traffic flow to the numerous businesses along this corridor and provided new infrastructure for future growth and development. The existing signalized interchange had been in place for many years and needed a major overhaul to handle the increased traffic volume and eliminate the numerous crashes that occurred there every year. Crews transformed the existing interchange into a partial diamond interchange consisting of two new bridges, three roundabouts, and three reconstructed sideroads four months ahead of the two-year project schedule. All this work took place while managing nearly double the anticipated traffic volume, which surged from roughly 5 million visitors a year to over 9 million due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To deliver this complex project ahead of schedule, Emery Sapp & Sons developed an internal traffic control plan that combined multiple phases of the project to reduce the number of construction phases from 13 to 9. Multiple Value Engineering proposals utilizing the existing pavement for temporary bypass construction were recognized on the project, which not only resulted in cost savings for the owner but also helped to further accelerate the project schedule. All of this work was completed while maintaining full traffic flow through the interchange for the entirety of the project. The improvement for the Wisconsin Department of Transportation project consisted of reconstructing 1.26 miles of a two-lane road—North Teutonia Avenue—to current City of Milwaukee and Wisconsin Department of Transportation standards. The roadway width was designed to match the existing widths. The project included one 12-foot driving lane and one on-street parking lane in each direction, with curb and gutter on the outside of the roadway. A 5-foot bike lane between the driving and parking lane was also constructed in each direction. In addition, sidewalks were replaced per American Disabilities Act (ADA) standards on both sides. North Teutonia Avenue work consisted of removals, grading, base aggregate dense, concrete pavement, concrete curb and gutter, concrete sidewalk, storm sewer, city underground conduit, pavement markings, traffic signals, and street lighting. By collaborating with residents and businesses on Teutonia Avenue, Zignego Company was able to produce creative solutions to provide access to properties while allowing the paving operation to slip-form pave the concrete pavement without having to gap for driveways openings. The reduction of driveway gaps resulted in increased ride quality on the project. This project was in an old section of Milwaukee which presented its own set of challenges, including the discovery of an abandoned asbestos-based conduit pipe, a combination of live and abandoned utilities in the subgrade, and meeting Americans with Disabilities Act requirements. Teutonia Avenue has a full sidewalk, which allows no room for error when placing the sidewalk as well as curb ramps. Extensive planning and field modifications had to be done to ensure that the project was ADA-compliant when completed. There were also many staircases, private sidewalks, and business entryways that needed extra consideration while forming and pouring to ensure ADA compliance. GOLD

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 16 WWW.ACPA.ORG OVERLAYS (HIGHWAYS) US 69 North of SH 63 Extend North of Kiowa Pittsburgh, Oklahoma CONTRACTOR: Duit Construction Co., Inc.* OWNER: Oklahoma Department of Transportation ENGINEER: CEC, Inc. SILVER Iowa Highway 31 Woodbury/Ida/Cherokee County, Iowa CONTRACTOR: Cedar Valley Corp.* OWNER: Iowa Department of Transportation ENGINEER: Iowa Department of Transportation Situated in beautiful southeast Oklahoma, time was critical for the U.S. Highway 69 overlay due to the volume of truck traffic. The Oklahoma Department of Transportation decided to let the project as a full-thickness overlay that required milling the existing asphalt 9 inches to leave at least 4 inches of existing asphalt base. An 11-inch concrete overlay was placed over this base. This project was bid as a complete by date that allowed 180 calendar days administered as “overcome all.” Every delay had to be absorbed by the contractor to achieve a bonus or be charged disincentives. Prior to the construction of the concrete overlay on the northbound side, an asphalt subcontractor was required to resurface the southbound side with a 1.75-inch asphalt overlay. In true “Murphy’s Law” fashion, Duit personnel watched in horror as their asphalt plant caught fire and caused several delays that forced the project timeline to extend further than originally scheduled. These delays, along with cement shortages, supply chain disruptions and early COVID-19 restrictions, shifted paving operations into the wettest months in the region. However, Duit was able to complete paving within the scheduled timeframe. This project paid for the concrete by the cubic yard, so yields and overruns were to be managed as much as possible. The two biggest goals of this project included maintaining a good ride with all of the different control points and maintaining a low yield percentage overrun while controlling and maintaining proper thickness. Duit achieved a total bonus of $150,570 and maintained a low yield overrun on the concrete pavement. As to the thickness, no deductions were applied. Cedar Valley Corp.’s Woodbury/Ida/Cherokee County-Iowa Highway 31 contract was a hilly project that included 45 horizontal curves, 12 of which were superelevated. Highway 31 also boasted an astounding 108 vertical curves. The project had two bridge approaches poured half width by hand in order to maintain local traffic and then match with the mainline paving. The length of the project was 8.2 miles, and CVC crews placed over 137,000 square yards of paving. The project called for a nominal 6-inch thick, 24-foot-wide overlay with attached 2-foot-wide, 8-inch shoulders. A safety edge was also added on the outside shoulder. Combined, these pavements consumed 20,600 cubic yards of concrete. Occasionally the Iowa Department of Transportation invites contractors to run field tests to try out new concepts, or in this case, new materials. CVC agreed to incorporate synthetic macro-fibers at differing rates into test sections of various panel sizes. The hope was that the use of macro fibers would help prevent random cracking that often occurs during Iowa’s numerous freeze-thaw cycles. The fibers were incorporated into the mix at a rate of 4 lbs/CY, and the panels were sawed in varying sizes from 6 feet by 6 feet up to 12 feet by 15 feet. One additional test section was constructed with 1.875 lbs/CY to use fibers the contractor had on hand. The successful five-day trial in the fall of 2020 had CVC placing 20,602 pounds of fibers in 5,482 cubic yards of overlay concrete. All these areas of differing rates of fibers and panel sizes exhibit no random cracks through most of the two winters of freeze and thaw cycles. GOLD

WWW.ACPA.ORG 17 Winter // 2022–23 OVERLAYS (STREETS & ROADS) Adams Center Roundabout Improvements Allen County, Indiana CONTRACTOR: Primco* / Milestone Contractors LP* OWNER: Allen County Highway Department ENGINEER: Engineering Resources SILVER County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 13 Concrete Overlay Nicollet County, Minnesota CONTRACTOR: Croell, Inc.* OWNER: Nicollet County Public Works, Minnesota ENGINEER: Nicollet County Public Works, Minnesota This project was a great success story where Allen County called the Indiana ACPA chapter for help solving a problem with rutting and peeling asphalt on an existing asphalt roundabout. The roundabout had been overlaid three times, trying to solve the pushing of the asphalt from heavy truck traffic speeding through on a daily basis. ACPA and Allen County representatives and developed specifications for a new 6-inch QC-QA concrete thin bonded overlay. This specific roundabout has three roads intersecting it with five different entry/exit points. The County allowed for a total closure of the roundabout to help expedite the construction process and minimize the impact on the traveling public. Once closed, a mill machine was used to mill transition and scarification in the asphalt shoulder areas, as well as mill 4.5 inches of asphalt off in areas to be overlaid. Primco then performed the 2- to 14-foot slip paving days around the radius of the roundabout. Multiple hand pours completed the roadway transitions between the roundabout and adjacent asphalt roadways. The last step was paving on the shoulders, a couple of transition areas, and final lane markings before opening to traffic. This was the first time liquid flyash and ES internal curing admixture were used together for slip-form pavement. The mix was great, and it slip formed and finished perfectly. The ES curing admixture and liquid fly ash were used in the concrete mixture with fiber for the portland cement concrete (PCC) thin bonded overlay. This mixture has become popular in other aspects of construction, but this was the first time Primco used it in a PCC concrete overlay process. County State Aid Highway (CSAH) 13 provides a connection between Minnesota Trunk Highway 14 and Trunk Highway 99 and is a 10-ton/axle-load carrying capacity road that is heavily used by traffic generated by businesses in the industrial park in North Mankato, Minnesota. It also provides a vital route for the agricultural industry in Nicollet County to service farmers in the County and allows those same farmers to deliver their goods to agricultural processing facilities in the Mankato/North Mankato region. The existing bituminous surfacing on this particular segment of CSAH 13 was showing significant pavement distress and decreased ride quality since it was last paved in 1996. Every spring, the 10-ton/axle-load carrying capacity was reduced to 7-ton/axleload carrying capacity to prevent further deterioration. This reduction of load-carrying capacity each spring for six to eight weeks severely hampered the heavy commercial traffic’s ability to haul full-capacity loads. It was determined that a concrete overlay was the best solution to restore CSAH 13 to a year-round 10-ton/axle-load carrying capacity, restore ride quality and provide an economical long-term investment. The project involved a profile mill removing approximately 2.5 inches of the existing bituminous and placing an unbonded 7-inch doweled concrete pavement over the 36-foot bituminous surface (including shoulders) for 5.3 miles. The contractor was required to develop a bituminous milling profile that restored proper cross slope on the tangent sections, superelevation and elevation transitions on the numerous curves. The paving profile ensured that a minimum of 7 inches of concrete pavement thickness was placed. The project had incentives/disincentives for pavement smoothness, coarse aggregate quality, water/cement ratio, and well-graded aggregate gradation. Croell, Inc. received a combined $233,810 in incentive pavements for their quality work. GOLD

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 18 WWW.ACPA.ORG RCC (INDUSTRIAL) Nevada Knight/ Swift Trucking Terminal Reno, Nevada CONTRACTOR: Andale Construction*/PRS, Inc. OWNER: Knight-Swift Transportation Holdings, Inc. ENGINEER: Andale Construction* SILVER Walmart Distribution Center Topeka, Kansas CONTRACTOR: A.G. Peltz Group, LLC* OWNER: Whiting-Turner Company ENGINEER: Langan Engineering & Environmental Services The Reno/Sparks, Nevada, area is one of the most challenging climatic conditions for roads and pavements. The climate, along with diverse regional materials, make producing an economical and highly sustainable concrete a challenge—especially when the pavement must handle the constant truck load of a freight trucking company. The owner had experience with RCC on other facilities and knew it was a good choice for this facility. Andale Construction tapped local contractor Pavement Recycling Systems for the RCC paving construction itself. Dozens of local engineers, labs, contractors, providers, and engineers came from private industry as well as the Nevada Department of Transportation to see the construction because RCC on a large facility is new to the area. The ability to walk on and roll immediately, the fast strength gain with no shrinkage cracking or crazing—which is common to the area—and the quality of the troweled and finished surface impressed the client as well as the visitors. The RCC produced for this project was batched locally using a mobile pugmill plant owned by PRS. The mix was somewhat revolutionary for the area as 4,000 psi strengths were achieved using less than 500 pounds of total cementitious material. Mixes used local Fernley I/II cement. The mixes even showed that Nevada Cement’s new Portland Limestone Cement (PLC) met strengths. The ability to achieve such great strengths is significant for the Reno region, which typically sees values between 600 to 800 pounds. This represented cost savings, environmental sustainability, and durability increases for the project. Walmart Inc. is the largest retailer in the country, with year-over-year net sales growing by 8.7% in the fiscal year 2021 compared to the prior period. To address this growing demand, Walmart continues to invest heavily in increasing supply chain capacity and automation. A significant part of this investment includes building new company distribution centers. While not a large metropolitan population center, Topeka, Kansas, has the logistical advantage of being centrally located, taking less than three days to reach anywhere in the continental United States. This central location played a prominent role in Walmart’s decision to build a new $200 million distribution center in Topeka. The new center is Walmart’s largest in the state, with more than 1.8 million square feet at approximately a 35-foot clear stacking height. In late 2020, the general contractor contracted A.G. Peltz Group (AGP) to mix and place over 173,000 square yards of dual-lift 12-inch roller compacted concrete (RCC) pavement for the Topeka project. The timetable on this project was highly challenging as Walmart’s accelerated project schedule required AGP to pave six-day workweeks and work in sub-optimal temperature conditions. Topeka has difficult weather conditions with both temperature and wind extremes. In fact, during the construction process, windy conditions resulted in portions of the newly installed roof blowing off. AGP relied on the widespread use of blankets on the grade, pavement, and material stockpiles during the harshest weather. Other unique attributes of this project included meeting Walmart’s request to trowel finish the entire RCC surface, the interfaces between the RCC and the concrete dolly pads, the replacement of traditional concrete with RCC for a dolly pad, and the sawing and sealing of over 280,000 linear feet of joints. Despite these challenges, AGP completed this project on schedule, averaging close to 1,000 cubic yards per day of paving. GOLD

WWW.ACPA.ORG 19 Winter // 2022–23 RCC (SPECIAL APPLICATION) SCTAC Hercules Way Greenville, South Carolina CONTRACTOR: Andale Construction*/King Asphalt OWNER: Greenville County ENGINEER: COTRANSCO, LLC SILVER Roller Compacted Concrete on I-59 in Birmingham Jefferson County, Alabama CONTRACTOR: A.G. Peltz, LLC* OWNER: Alabama Department of Transportation ENGINEER: Alabama Department of Transportation Hercules Way, part of the landside pavement at Donaldson Field in Greenville, South Carolina, is the site of the first unbonded RCC whitetopping project. Donaldson Field, which is part of the South Carolina Technology and Aviation Center, was built in 1942 as Greenville Army Air Base, then was renamed Donaldson Air Force Base in 1951. The base was decommissioned in 1962 and returned to the City and County. Over the years, the Technology and Aviation Center has become home to a number of companies, including Lockheed Martin. Lockheed Martin currently maintains and refurbishes the legendary Air Force C-130 Hercules cargo aircraft and Navy P-3 Orion patrol aircraft at Donaldson Center and is about to expand to work on the F-16 fighter jet. As part of this expansion, Hercules Way, the road leading to the Lockheed Martin facility, was slated to be improved by Greenville County. Hercules Way is an 8-inch thick concrete taxiway that was converted to a road after the base was decommissioned. The original pavement was constructed between 60 and 80 years ago and covered with roughly two inches of asphalt several decades ago. By 2021, the asphalt pavement was completely oxidized. Initially, engineers for the County planned to rubblize and overlay or remove the existing pavement and completely reconstruct the pavement. However, after looking at the multiple advantages of RCC (construction speed, durability, cost), the County decided RCC would be the best choice. The price of the RCC option was $695,000. Compared to an estimated $1.3 million cost for the rubblizing project; RCC yielded a 46% cost savings. The RCC was finished using finishing admixtures, power trowels and brooming, providing excellent aesthetics and a quiet surface with adequate texture. It was produced at a local ready-mix concrete supplier, proving that special plants are not necessary. As with many concrete interstate roadways, I-59 near Trussville, Alabama, has been in service for over 45 years—significantly longer than its intended design life. When the Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) decided to bid on an 8-mile reconstruction project on I-59 in 2021, the roadway was in significant need of numerous safety and ride improvements. Historically, ALDOT has replaced asphalt shoulders with like pavement. However, with this project, ALDOT had a unique challenge in that the existing shoulders had pavement edge drains installed below the existing shoulder pavement. RCC was selected by ALDOT as the best-value pavement for shoulder reconstruction for multiple reasons. First, the existing edge drains in the pavement are at a 5.5-inch depth, and ALDOT did not want to disturb these costly drainage structures. In addition, during the mainline rehab, ALDOT used the shoulder to carry temporary traffic, requiring a pavement solution with both high strength and the ability to return traffic in a timely manner. With its rapid flexural and compressive strength gain and ability to place a single lift up to 10 inches in one pass, utilizing RCC allowed ALDOT to meet interstate drop-off limitations and keep the adjacent interstate lanes open daily. Finally, as the prime contractor, A.G. Peltz Group was able to bid and complete the entire project at $13.1 million, on the lower end of the bracket estimate range of $12.6 to $15.4 million established by ALDOT. This included over 128,000 square yards of RCC shoulders and ramps, 3,500 cubic yards of interstate mainline rehabilitation and 246,000 square yards of concrete grinding for smoothness. This was the first ALDOT shoulder and ramp project that utilized RCC and the first ALDOT paving project to use portland limestone cement in lieu of traditional cement, reducing typical carbon emissions by 10% minimum. From a contractor standpoint, the project was one of the thinnest (5-inch depth) and narrowest (5 feet in some places) pavements placed by AGP, requiring creative modifications to the RCC placement equipment. The end result for ALDOT was a low-maintenance, long-term shoulder pavement along with a rehabilitated concrete mainline, which will allow the existing concrete interstate to stay in service for another 10-plus years. GOLD

CONCRETE PAVEMENT PROGRESS 20 WWW.ACPA.ORG RELIEVER & GENERAL AVIATION AIRPORTS Central Wisconsin Airport Runway 17/35 Reconstruction and Associated Taxiway Improvements Mosinee, Wisconsin CONTRACTOR: Trierweiler Construction Company* OWNER: Central Wisconsin Airport ENGINEER: Becher-Hoppe, Inc. SILVER Runway 18-36 Reconstruction - Gould Peterson Municipal Airport Tarkio, Missouri CONTRACTOR: Ideker, Inc.* OWNER: City of Tarkio, Missouri ENGINEER: Olsson Central Wisconsin Airport completed the reconstruction of Runway 17/35 during the 2021 construction season. The reconstruction included longitudinal grade adjustments, connector taxiway reconstruction, safety area grading, navigation aid improvements, parallel taxiway pavement rehabilitation, runway and taxiway LED edge lighting, replacement of air traffic control tower controls, and electrical vault improvements. Trierweiler Construction Company, Inc. was awarded the construction contract for $13.9 million in September 2020. In situ soils at Central Wisconsin Airport are susceptible to differential frost heave due to the variability of silty soils, shallow bedrock, perched water, and springs. The pavement design for Runway 17/35 was developed using FAA pavement design guidance and historical engineering experience at CWA. The 5-foot thick pavement section includes 100% free draining, non-frost susceptible, open-graded rock subbase course layers constructed on compacted subgrade. The open-graded crushed aggregate subbase course received FAA approval through a rare modification of standards process. The pavement design included 10 inches of P501 concrete and a 5-inch layer of cement-treated permeable base (CTPB) supported by the open-graded crushed aggregate subbase. Trierweiler Construction proposed a no-cost change order to eliminate the CTPB and increase the pavement thickness to 15 inches. The approved change benefited the project by increasing pavement section strength. A unique feature incorporated in the runway pavement joint layout is the center joint. The centerline joint is offset from the center crown line. CWA staff came up with the idea to mitigate snowplow damage to the center joint when the snowplows ride on the crown highpoint. Trierweiler fabricated a custom screed for the slipform paver to form the crown breakpoint in the slab. Special tools were made for finishing and checking the offset centerline joint. The Gould Peterson Municipal Airport consisted of an approximately 3,200-foot by 60-foot concrete runway with a displaced threshold. The existing pavement section consisted of 5 to 6 inches of concrete over 3 to 10 inches of asphalt. The existing concrete was approximately 25 years old and was deteriorating rapidly due to ASR, causing frequent foreign object debris on the runway. The City of Tarkio was awarded supplemental FAA funding in 2019 to cover 100% of the proposed project cost. Through a partnership with the Missouri Department of Transportation, the project was selected to proceed with design and construction. The new runway needed to be shifted south and elevated to solve existing obstructions with the adjacent MoDOT highway. The resulting runway is 3,600 feet by 75 feet and required the placement of a 3-foot fill at the new north end and a 6-foot fill at the new south end. The project also included replacing the airfield edge lighting, construction of new runway end identifier lights and precision approach path indicators, construction of a new electrical vault building and installing a new wind cone. The existing airport was closed in September 2020. To minimize potential earthwork overruns, the design consisted of a “crack and seat” of the existing runway pavement to provide a stabilized layer of existing pavement beneath the proposed fill. The project required the placement of approximately 130,000 cubic yards of fill, which was sourced off-site. Construction included the placement of approximately 37,500 square yards of P-209 crushed aggregate base. ldeker mobilized a concrete batch plant to the site and sourced specialized aggregate and Type IS cement to comply with the FAA P-501 specification requirements. A fully machine-controlled equipment setup was used to place approximately 36,500 square yards of 6-inch P-501 concrete. The runway paving consisted of four separate placements of 3,600 feet lengths. Due to cooperative efforts between the contractor and engineer, the project finished approximately 7.5% under the original budget. GOLD