PLSO The Oregon Surveyor March/April 2023

PLSO Auction 12 Photo Contest 14 The Oregon March/April 2023 A publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon

Editorials From the PLSO Chair, by Tim Fassbender, PLS, PLSO Board Chair 2 From the PLSO Office, by Aimee McAuliffe, PLSO Executive Secretary 4 Featured Articles Colorado Rule 6.5.1—Find and Flag, by Earl Henderson, PLS 6 Paid Internships or Work Experience Through PCC, by Christina Friedle 8 PE and PLS Licensure Process Changes, by Renee Clough, PLS 10 2023 Auction Recap, by Marcus Helm 12 Learning Lessons With Compasses, by Jay Gray 13 Photo Contest Winners 14 Confusion Is Coming, by Andrew Plett, PLS 17 Columns Member Spotlight, by Vanessa Salvia 20 Surveyors In The News, by Pat Gaylord, PLS 22 The Lost Surveyor, by Pat Gaylord, PLS 24 On the Cover Tucker Hines works for Branch Engineering, Inc. On this day, he was setting GPS control to tie the North 1/4 corner in TRS 17-3E-01 while working on a residential survey for a property owner who was trying to rebuild their home that burned in the McKenzie River Holiday Farm Fire. Tucker’s photo won first place in the annual photo contest. The Oregon Surveyor is a publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon (PLSO). It is provided as a medium for the expression of individual opinions concerning topics relating to the Land Surveying profession. Address changes & business All notifications for changes of address, membership inquiries, and PLSO business correspondence should be directed to Aimee McAuliffe, PO Box 230548, Tigard, OR 97281; 503-303-1472; Editorial matters & contributions of material The Oregon Surveyor welcomes your articles, comments, and photos for publication. PLSO assumes no responsibility for statements expressed in this publication. Editorial matters should be directed to Vanessa Salvia, Advertising policy Advertising content and materials are subject to approval of the PLSO Board and LLM Publications. The publisher reserves the right to reject any advertising that simulates copy; material must be clearly marked as “Advertisement.” For advertising, contact: Ronnie Jacko,; 503-445-2234, 800-647-1511 x2234. A publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon Executive Secretary Aimee McAuliffe PO Box 230548 Tigard, OR 97281 503-303-1472 Toll-free: 844-284-5496 Published by LLM Publications 503-445-2220 • 800-647-1511 Advertising Ronnie Jacko, Design Hope Sudol © 2023 LLM Publications Editor Vanessa Salvia Publications Committee Tim Kent, Interim Chair Pat Gaylord Contents Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon @ORLandSurveyors The Oregon Vol. 46, No. 2 March/April 2023

2 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 From the PLSO Chair MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR For the last few years, the lack of new licensed land surveyors coming into the profession within Oregon and within the nation has been brought up for discussion many times. Since there are not many new surveyors entering the profession, this in turn dominos into a lack of new members within PLSO. For the record, I have been a card- carrying member of PLSO since 1974, and this was before PLSO had a student- member category. At the time I started my college education at Oregon Institute of Technology, one of the professors invited us to a PLSO chapter meeting in Klamath Falls, where they spent time explaining PLSO and the benefits of joining. At the end of the meeting, I decided, along with a few others, to join PLSO. I no longer recall what the membership cost, but I did mention something to the effect that I wasn’t prepared for this expense at that time, at which one of the members said to us, “just fill out the form and we will pay your first years’ dues.” In my mind, that was probably the first true professional act that I witnessed. Sure, it was a way to get us into PLSO, but it also showed me that they saw us as the future and that getting us involved in PLSO early would pay dividends. The more important question to ask now is, have you invited a non-member to join? Now, this is an organization whose purpose is to defend and improve the survey profession, so it naturally begs the question, why would you not persuade anyone who has an interest in the survey profession to join PLSO? More importantly, why would anyone not want to be a member of PLSO, especially if they have ideas on how to improve the survey profession. Being a licensed land surveyor isn’t easy. We have Oregon Revised Statutes, Oregon Administrative Rules, and state and local land use codes that we need to be up to date with and apply to our daily work. We have changing technology for how to gather and use the data we collect in the field and in the office. On top of all of that, we are trying to earn a living and enjoy life. Not an easy task for anyone to tackle. PLSO helps in these areas. We help in defending the laws that people want to change to make our jobs more difficult, we fix or create laws that will better the profession and help the public, and we provide training to help keep the members up to date on the changes in the profession. Some will say PLSO comes up short in some of these areas in aiding the surveyor. My answer to that is, get involved and help correct the problem. Yes, that will take time out of your schedule, but it is an investment that will pay off in the future. At the PLSO Conference this past January, I asked those attending the annual business meeting who were under 40 years of age to stand up and be recognized. It was a great pleasure to see the number of people who stood up. As I said, this is our future and we should help them in any way we can to be an active member in PLSO. Some of the Young Surveyors have commented that they feel intimidated when they attend any PLSO functions. That is natural, since the younger members may not know many of the people in the group, and when you are not comfortable in your surroundings it is easy to just not put yourself into that situation again. Well, we all felt that when we entered into this organization and found a bunch of Tim Fassbender, PLS PLSO Board Chair Tim says he cherishes his membership card, which was signed by Bert Mason during Bert's last year as PLSO Executive Secretary.

3 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | From the PLSO Chair We have serious problems to solve. We need people, young and experienced, to solve them. We need fresh ideas, and no idea is a bad idea. We will be holding a discussion on updating the PLSO Strategic Plan at our next Board of Directors meeting. unfamiliar people talking about stuff we didn’t understand. My experience taught me that if you listen to what they are talking about, I’m sure you will be experiencing it personally at the office shortly. That is how you can learn and prevent the hardships they encountered. After a few conversations with these people, they will get to know you and you will become more comfortable and at ease in your surroundings. We are lucky in PLSO in that we have the means to meet and become acquainted with so many fellow surveyors. We are truly never alone. We have the means to reach out to them for help when needed. That is what PLSO is all about. We have serious problems to solve. We need people, young and experienced, to solve them. We need fresh ideas, and no idea is a bad idea. We will be holding a discussion on updating the PLSO Strategic Plan at our next Board of Directors meeting. This plan is a road map for what PLSO wishes to accomplish in the near future. This is also where your ideas and wishes on what you want PLSO to be begin. So, I’m asking that you act on two items. One, invite and mentor new members to PLSO and help them feel welcomed. Two, let your chapter officers know your ideas (Be reasonable! Unfortunately, we can’t get Starbucks to give us free coffee), and be prepared to help bring them to life.  Ronnie Jacko | 503-445-2234

4 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 From the PLSO Office Aimee McAuliffe, PLSO Exec. Secretary Community Affiliations are Key We’ve all heard the saying, “It’s not what you know, it’s who you know.” This often rings true in daily life. After all, there are a lot of smart people in the world that are just as capable as we are. (I’m all about giving us the benefit of the doubt.) So, what’s to differentiate two professionals apart when they have similar qualifications, be it an employer or potential client? Graduates are often startled by the realities of the need to network when they first start their career. This is, of course, the part where I tell you how being an active part of an association creates situations for you to create your network of people. You might think attending a chapter meeting or serving as its secretary is no big deal. But suddenly you’re getting referrals from the association office or chapter president because they can’t take the project on. That happened because you became known to them and they know you show up when you’re supposed to. Otherwise, you’re just a name on a list of other names, aren’t you? Now, let’s flip the script. We desperately need more land surveyors if we’re going to be able to keep up with projects in the next 10 years. If we can’t keep up with projects, well-meaning but short-sighted people will want to find a way to circumvent licensing requirements, ultimately putting the public at risk. This is why outreach for the profession, from reaching middle and high school-aged children to college students who haven’t chosen their major, is more important than ever. Quick question—is a message louder if one person is shouting in one classroom or if a lot of different people are whispering the same thing, in every room of the school, multiple times a day? That’s right, professional land surveying needs to not only know more people, but it needs to know the right people. We want to be in “the room where it happens.” So how do we get out there and meet people? We have to network by adding value. Value may be found in sponsoring appropriate events, talking about the pathway to licensure at job and college fairs, volunteering time in a classroom to talk about the cool parts of surveying, sharing surveying photos and memes on Instagram, or even a funny video of surveyors dancing around a Total Station to “Hard Way To Make An Easy Living“ by Toby Keith on TikTok. Better yet, change “All the Single Ladies” to “All the Land Surveyors” and dance to Beyonce like nobody is watching. Trust me, it will get shared. Shared laughter brings a lot of value. One new thing PLSO is doing this year is sponsoring the Oregon ACTE Annual Conference in Bend this April 12–14. Members of our Central Chapter will be staffing our sponsor exhibit space and giving a presentation on bringing land surveying into the classroom. (Shout out to Scott Freshwaters, Mike Berry, and Russell Dodge for making this happen.) Many of us are very familiar with CTE, but just in case, I will review. ACTE is the Association for Career and Technical Education. Their mission is “to provide educational leadership in developing a Quick question—Is a message louder if one person is shouting in one classroom or if a lot of different people are whispering the same thing, in every room of the school, multiple times a day?

5 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | From the PLSO Office competitive workforce. ACTE strives to empower educators to deliver high quality CTE programs that ensure all students are positioned for career success,” and their members are professionals representing all facets of CTE, including counselors, instructors, and administrators. The educational segment is proving very successful because they rely on community involvement and advocacy. They are focused on filling immediate employment and skills needs from the business community, rather than looking at which college degrees bring in the most money for the lowest cost. According to careertech. org there are 12 million high school and college age students enrolled in CTE programs across the nation. “CTE prepares these learners for the world of work by introducing them to workplace competencies, and makes academic content accessible to students by providing it in a hands-on context. In fact, the high school graduation rate for CTE concentrators is about 90%—15 percentage points higher than the national average.” In Oregon, 95% of CTE students are graduating in four years vs the state average of 81.3%. This is hard to ignore. So what makes CTE tick? They know everyone and they network by bringing value. The state of Oregon has grants available for funding and supporting programs is becoming more and more important to big business. In 2019, Darrell Fuller and I participated in the selection process for CTE grant project selection. One project that sticks out in my mind is the Coastal Drone Academy, which is a program of Career Tech High School, an accredited charter school in Lincoln City. This is a program that is part of a school, supported by members of the community, partnered with the Unmanned Safety Institute (USI), a for profit certification program. When this program first started in 2018, USI put out a press release explaining the program: “The Coastal Drone Academy is a model example of how high schools across America can implement successful career and technical education programs with successful student outcomes, and USI is honored to be a part of their story. The Small UAS Safety Certification consists of four courses totaling more than 180 hours of instruction. Students who successfully complete the program are eligible to take USI’s credentialing exam leading to the Small UAS Safety Certification, an industry certification demonstrating expertise in the safe and professional application of remotely piloted aircraft making them highly qualified for careers in the burgeoning industry of Unmanned Aircraft Systems, commonly referred to as ‘drones.’ Students are then enrolled in USI’s Career Pathways Initiative, providing them with a direct link to employers that are looking for professional remote pilots.” Things you can do to help promote the profession: 1. Follow PLSO at PLSO_1959 on Instagram and share our message. 2. Talk to your kid’s teacher or CTE teacher if they are in high school. 3. Represent PLSO at career fairs and conferences by staffing the booth or speaking about the profession. 4. Contact Education & Outreach Committee Chair Lee Spurgeon to let him know you are willing to host student drive-alongs or shadow days. 5. Create a quality internship program and share it on the Job & Intern Board on How to Send Us Your Work Please email the editor Vanessa Salvia with submissions. Your submission should be in .doc format. Please send images separately (not embedded in the document) and at the highest file size available (MB size range versus KB size range—larger sizes are encouraged). Please include the author’s name and email address or phone number for contact. This is a good example of how we should be partnering with CTE programs and schools in general. It doesn’t have to start this big. But we do need to get the message out there. It’s not just our surveying workforce that needs us—it’s the engineering and construction work force that needs us to do this too. With that said, PLSO is a member driven association. That means, we also need YOU to step up and grab your megaphone. 

6 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 Rule 6.5.1 is an interesting Rule to review and ponder. It outlines some, but not all actions which will be considered by the Board to fall within the definition of a Land Survey. I’m not going to try to review all the aspects and ramifications in this article of 6.5.1(a)- (1) & I may come back to some others in future articles, but suffice it to say that this is part of what the Board uses to decide if actions by a licensed land surveyor constitute the practice of land surveying and subsequently then if the PLS should be reviewed for possible disciplinary action. But for the purposes of this article I want to focus on 6.5.1(a) & 6.5.1(c) especially as they relate to the practice commonly referred to in our industry as a “Find and Flag” operation (F&F). In the remote case that you don’t understand what is meant by F&F, consider yourself fortunate. I recommend you don’t even consider doing it, and you might even be better off to stop reading this article right here. But at the risk of informing those PLS’s who would take advantage of their position and the public, F&F is when a PLS, or PLS’s representative, visits a property, finds apparent property corner monumentation, flags that apparent property corner monument for the property owner, and then ceases further activity and departs the site. The property owner likely feels they’ve received a legitimate land surveying service in that they couldn’t find their own property corner monumentation by themselves, but they can now rely on those found monuments to complete whatever it is they intend, i.e. build a fence or determine a setback for a shed, etc. The PLS may feel as though a legitimate service has been provided, yet they’ve avoided the requirements to complete any measurements or draft and deposit a plat, while saving the property owner significant charges and possibly even outsmarting their competition. But those PLS’s who feel that way should think again. There are so many pitfalls for a F&F on a property it’s almost impossible to outline them all. The most obvious is, what if you’ve just indicated to the property owner that a particular monument marks their corner location, when even a quick measurement would show you that it’s not the right location? How are you going to explain that to your insurance company, or worse a judge? And let’s face it, there’s really no doubt in anyone’s mind, the PLS or the property owner, that the property owner is going to interpret the found monumentation to represent their property corners, agreed? But the Board isn’t concerned about your insurance policy or what a judge might think. Board Rule 6.5.1(a) reads, “The establishment of boundaries or the restoration or rehabilitation of any monument marking a corner that controls the location of real property.” Think about this in relation to the F&F. During a F&F a PLS is not establishing boundaries. That’s the purview of an original surveyor. But it’s not too difficult to see that a F&F can be interpreted as “restoration or rehabilitation of any monument marking a corner.” If it didn’t mark a corner, why was it shown to the property owner and flagging tied on it? Featured Article Denver COLORADO RULE 6.5.1— FIND AND FLAG By Earl Henderson, PLS

7 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article What is Find and Flag? F&F is when a PLS, or PLS’s representative, visits a property, finds apparent property corner monumentation, flags that apparent property corner monument for the property owner, and then ceases further activity and departs the site. Board Rule 6.5.1(c) reads, “The determination of the position of any monument, reference point, or any other mark, when such monument or mark controls the location of boundaries or rights of ownership in or use of real property.” How much more clear can it be stated? A F&F is exactly this. Now some may be thinking that “determination of the position” should be interpreted to mean measurements were taken, but that’s not the case because measurements are clearly considered in 6.5.1(e). Others may be thinking that the phrase “controls the location of boundaries...” can be sidestepped by telling the property owner that the PLS is not taking the responsibility that any of the monuments found are correctly marking a corner. But the whole point of a F&F is so the property owner will know their property boundaries and likely use the found monuments to accomplish some task on their property. The property owner is certainly going to use those found monuments to “control the location of boundaries or rights of ownership” for their property. And the F&F PLS just pointed the monuments out to the property owner, thereby taking on that responsibility and liability. Clearly then, F&F falls within the definition of a Land Survey. A Land Survey is defined under 38-51-102(11). A Monumented Land Survey under 38-51102(13) is defined as a Land Survey with monuments “either found or set.” And 38-51-107 requires a plat to be prepared and deposited when performing a Monumented Land Survey. So a F&F does not prevent the PLS from having to prepare and deposit a plat. Seems like clear logic to me. But I’ve found that common sense is often better than logic. First, as Professional Land Surveyors, it is our responsibility to protect and serve the public. That includes protecting your client from themselves sometimes but also protecting all their surrounding neighbors. How can a F&F possibly protect, or in any way serve any of these property owners? Second, let’s hypothetically suppose you happen to know a PLS that performs F&F operations as a routine part of their business. It’s my opinion that it’s likely that at some point during this “fictional” PLS’s career there will be a monument found and flagged that does not represent the correct corner location for a particular property. But the property owner relies on that location because it was found by a “professional” (although I hate using that word in this case). Later it turns out their neighbor gets a Monumented Land Survey and determines that the F&F property owner has encroached upon their property with some improvement, or worse yet, possibly one party or the other has established a fence and now has an adverse possession case worthy of merit. Once the truth comes out, who do you think is going to be in front of the judge, and then the Board, trying to explain the merits of the F&F “service” they provided? And how much insurance do you think that particular PLS carries? Or a better question may be, what is that PLS’s house worth? Be safe out there. And please also be responsible.  Editor’s Note: This article originally appeared in the August 2015 issue of Side Shots, the member publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Colorado, and is reprinted with permission.

8 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 Portland Community College (PCC) has received its second round of funding through the National Science Foundation’s Advanced Technological Education grant. Part of this grant provides funding for our Geomatics, UAS, and GIS students (and recent graduates) to get paid internship or work-based experiences with local industry and community partners through June 2025. Internships can be set up to last between three and six months, either part-time during the academic year or full-time in the summer. The particular focus on each internship is dependent on the needs of the industry or community partners. As an industry or community partner, the expectations include: • Sign a contract with PCC designating each role in the internship agreement. This is necessary because interns are PCC employees, but working with an outside organization. • Create an internship position announcement that outlines length of time, number of hours, position description/scope of work, desired skills, and instructions on how to apply. • Review applications and select applicants to interview. • Provide a main point of contact for the intern. • Provide constructive feedback to interns, integrate them into the team and meetings related to their scope of work, and provide a supportive environment. • Intern supervisor fills out an evaluation at the end of the internship and participates in a debriefing meeting with the geography department chair and the student. PCC manages all the advertising and recruitment for the internship opportunity, as well as the hiring and employment logistics for the intern. If necessary, interns have full access to PCC facilities, software, and other resources. When the internship is completed, the intern sets up a meeting with their supervisor and the geography department chair to debrief the experience and present the work that was completed during the internship. If you or your company/organization is interested in hosting an intern, get in touch! Learn more about PCCs Geospatial Programs: • Geomatics AAS: https://www.pcc. edu/programs/gis/aas-geomatics. • GIS Certificate: programs/gis/cert-gis. • Geospatial UAS Certificate: https:// geospatial-specialist.  Christina Friedle is department chair of the Geography/GIS department at Portland Community College. Christina has been instrumental in designing and managing PCC’s geospatial programs including a GIS Certificate, UAS Certificate, and Geomatics AAS. Contact her at or (971) 722-4072. Featured Article PAID INTERNSHIPS OR WORK EXPERIENCE THROUGH PCC By Christina Friedle Part of this grant provides funding for our Geomatics, UAS, and GIS students (and recent graduates) to get paid internship or work-based experiences with local industry and community partners through June 2025.

10 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 I recently served as the Chair of OSBEELS’ Land Surveying Qualifications Taskforce to evaluate and update the “Education and Experience Requirements for Registration as a Professional Land Surveyor” in Oregon Administrative Rule (OAR) 820-010-2020. During that process, it was realized that many people are unaware of the changes made in 2015 to both the PE and PLS licensure processes. Most of the people reading this article will already have licensure themselves, but ideally you are mentoring, or at least know, people working towards licensure and would like to give them accurate guidance. To help you provide that guidance, the discussion below summarizes the changes from both 2015 and 2022. Licensure Process For myself, and many other current licensees, the process for a PE or PLS was to (a) qualify for the Fundamentals Exam via experience or a degree from an accredited college program, (b) apply to OSBEELS for the Fundamentals Exam, (c) obtain four years of experience after passing the Fundamentals Exam, and then (d) apply to OSBEELS for both (national 6-hour and Oregon’s state-specific 4-hour) Professional exams. With a few exceptions, the exams were written and graded by NCEES (National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying) but it was still OSBEELS who handled all aspects of administering the exam. In 2015, OSBEELS chose to “decouple” the exams from the licensure process in response to NCEES moving towards computerized testing instead of printed paper exams. The result of decoupling is that, with a few minor exceptions, OSBEELS has no involvement in the exam process. Potential licensees coordinate with NCEES to take the national Fundamentals Exam and then the national Professional Exam. There is no requirement for the exams to be taken in a particular order or PE AND PLS LICENSURE PROCESS CHANGES By Renee Clough, PLS Featured Article

11 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article relationship to the experience. If a person wants to take both exams before having any experience or formal education, they can. Conversely, if a person wants to take both exams after all the experience and any education is complete, they can. Or they are welcome to take the exams in any other timing relationship with their experience or education. Applicants only submit their application for professional registration to OSBEELS after completion of education (if applicable to the person), experience, and passing scores on all exams. The two Oregon-specific exams (one for surveying and one for forest engineering) are the only two exceptions. In the case of those two, registration to take the exam is the first application to OSBEELS. However, those exams, like the NCEES administered exams, can be taken at any time during the process. There are no qualification requirements for either exam beyond signing up for the exams through the MyOSBEELS portal (https:// MyOSBEELS.aspx). New PLS Requirements OSBEELS staff noted in the summer of 2021 that there were broken portions of the then-current standards for education and experience to obtain PLS licensure. The Board agreed and the taskforce that I chaired was born. Everyone involved in the process was cognizant of the need to remove barriers to licensure by qualified applicants while maintaining sufficient standards to ensure those applicants were qualified. Following is a brief summary of the pathways now available for PLS licensure: 1. ABET-accredited bachelor’s degree in surveying/geomatics plus three years of experience. 2. ABET-accredited Bachelor’s degree in engineering. a. 16 quarter hours (or 11 semester hours) of survey/geomatics electives plus four years of experience. b. No credits in survey/geomatics electives plus six years of experience. 3. Associate’s degree in engineering or surveying plus six years of experience. 4. NCEES Credentials Evaluation. The Credentials Evaluation is a service provided by NCEES to compare a college transcript against the Surveying Education Standard. It doesn’t matter whether a degree was earned or a smattering of classes taken. It doesn’t matter what the degree track was. The evaluation identifies any classes on the transcript which align with the standard; if enough classes are present to meet all requirements of the standard, the evaluation is deemed equivalent. Credentials evaluations are primarily a tool for graduates from a non ABETaccredited program, students who did not complete a degree, international degrees, or degrees from other fields (such as Resource Management or GIS). a. Equivalent plus three years of experience. b. Not equivalent—reduction of the nine years of experience in number five below, reduction based on a ratio of one semester credit hour of qualifying education to one month of experience. 5. Nine years of experience. Additional details regarding these pathways and the opportunity to utilize military experience are in the newly adopted OAR 820-010-2020.  The result of decoupling is that, with a few minor exceptions, OSBEELS has no involvement in the exam process.

12 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 The 2023 PLSO Auction, combined with various raffles and special appeals, generated $26,842.24. Of that total, $11,018.00 was raised specifically for scholarships, $2,443.00 for outreach, and allocating $13,381.24 between scholarship and outreach will be voted on at the spring Board of Director’s meeting in Eugene. This year’s PLSO Auction participants involved both online and in-person attendees. The achievements of these fundraisers were only possible through the generous support provided by PLSO members, vendors at the conference, and friends of PLSO. Further thanks go to everyone who purchased auction items, raffle tickets, and made donations to miscellaneous appeals. More than 75 items were generously donated to this year’s auction. The continued support for future generations by surveyors and friends of the profession makes it a great pleasure to be a part of this event. The 2023 Auction Committee is made up of Cole Davis, Robert Hamman, and Marcus Helm. If you are interested in joining the committee for next year, contact PLSO. We look forward to seeing everyone again next year at the 2024 PLSO Conference in Salem, and having another successful event!  PLSO AUCTION RECAP By Marcus Helm Trent Keenan, on the right, donating his Oregon-Idaho Mile Marker post, which he won in the Live Auction, to Hunter Davis of the Oregon Tech Geomatics Club to proudly display for the year. Featured Article Jered McGrath draws a raffle ticket to win an auction prize donated by the Blue Mountain Chapter.

13 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article I have made it one of my primary objectives to find as many ways as possible to give students hands-on, real-world experiences in math and physics that they can take with them beyond high school. It was in trying to meet this objective that I came up with what I thought would be a simple lesson plan to introduce vectors to my pre-calculus and physics students at Pleasant Hill High School. The plan was to show students the basics of vectors by having them use compasses to create a treasure map to a secret location at the school. Our community is filled with many outdoor enthusiasts, and many students already had experience with a compass and were able to bring one in from home. Other students were not able to bring a compass from home, but we knew that our fancy modern smartphones have a compass app included with them, so we thought we would just use that. What could go wrong? Knowing that my audience is made up of professional surveyors, I’m sure you can already guess what went wrong. My students and I learned quickly just how far off a phone’s “compass” can be. Two identical model iPhones laying on top of one another showed measurements 20° off from one another. This ended up being a lesson in itself, as my students were able to see some of the limitations of the smart technology we use everyday. Even a low cost simple compass operated better than some of the phones we tried in class. Fast forward to the next school year, and I’m ready to try again with a new class of eager physics students. I’ve learned my lesson—or so I thought. This year, we would only use real compasses students brought from home. That way, we could avoid any silly issues brought about by pesky smart technology. I sent out my same email request to my students’ parents and guardians: “If you have one at home, please send your student to class with a compass this week…” Little did I know that one of my student’s parents is Renee Clough, a professional surveyor! When her student arrived at school for the compass activity, I was confused by the measurements she was reading. It seemed like her compass was off by 11° compared to mine and the other students’. The student patiently explained to me that Renee had adjusted her compass to the correct declination for our region. Just like that, my mind was blown right open! In two weeks I learned more about the behavior of the Earth’s magnetic field from emailing Renee than I learned in my entire college experience. What started out as a small lesson on the basics of vectors has now expanded into a deep physics dive into the Earth’s magnetic field, as well as an opportunity for students to see just what a surveyor’s job is all about. The student response to having the opportunity to work with real compasses in the classroom was very positive. Students were engaged from beginning to end, and our discussions during the lesson shifted between physics concepts like vectors and magnetism to applied skills like navigation and safety in the outdoors. Students faced tangible challenges as they moved about the campus, writing and following each other’s treasure maps, that could not have been seen or overcome while sitting at a desk. Afterwards, students both with and without experience with compasses felt like they had gained valuable knowledge and experience they could apply both in physics and elsewhere in their lives. During our email conversations, Renee asked if I would like to have some compasses for my classroom, as she knew some people who would be willing to donate them. Of course I said yes! And now, just a couple months later, thanks to the kind donations from several members of the PLSO, Pleasant Hill High school has two full classroom sets of compasses! It is our hope and goal moving forward to be able to integrate real-life navigational skills into math, physics, and even English classes like Adventure Survival. These highly engaging activities are exactly what students need to get excited about STEAM careers, and we are so grateful for the kind donations. Thank you for giving us the tools we need for these opportunities!  Renee Clough took this photo of a box of compasses that would be donated to Pleasant Hill High School. LEARNING LESSONS WITH COMPASSES By Jay Gray

14 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 PH TO CONTEST Winners Each year during the conference, participants are encouraged to submit their favorite work-related photos. These are the winners chosen, based on the number of votes each photo received. The first place photo, by Tucker Hines, is on this issue’s cover. Photo submitted by Austin Nielsen. Photo submitted by Austin Nielsen. Featured Article Shelby Griggs #PaidToWorkHere! Surveying aerial mapping control at Smith Rock State Park on October 25, 2022. Photo by GeoTerra Inc./Shelby H. Griggs, PLS

15 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Fun on the job! Photo by Anthony Domingo. Boundary down to Boogie. Retracing a 1980s survey in Cascade Locks. Photo by Erielle Lamb, PLS, CFedS. Featured Article continues  Photo submitted by Austin Nielsen.

16 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 Photo submitted by Jesse White.  This photo of Statewide Land Surveying’s total station for their monitoring project of the new Mitchell Point Tunnel was taken by Brad Cross, Hood River County Surveyor. Brad was at an OACES (Oregon Association of County Engineers and Surveyors) tour of the Historic Columbia River Highway State Trail project during their annual Fall Conference in Hood River. Featured Article Third generation surveyor, Tatum Griffin, is getting a head start on his field hours. Photo submitted by C. Ray Griffin. continued 

17 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article CONFUSION IS COMING By Andrew Plett, PLS As most surveyors are aware, the National Geodetic Survey is working hard on the next set of datums for the United States. This work encompasses a new Horizontal Datum, a new Vertical Datum, and new map projections for each state. They are: • North American Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2022 (NATRF2022) will replace NAD83. • North American-Pacific Geopotential Datum of 2022 (NAPGD2022) will replace NAVD88. • GEOID2022 will replace Geoid18. • State Plane Coordinate System of 2022 (SPCS2022) will replace the current State Plane zones, and in many states, add new low-distortion zones similar to Oregon DOT’s OCRS zones. Due to many factors, the release of these new systems is delayed, with the current FAQ page ( datums/newdatums/FAQNewDatums. shtml) stating, “It is not out of the question to consider a complete roll-out of the modernized NSRS to be somewhere in the 2024–2025 timeframe.” NAPGD2022’s Elevation Shift This article focuses on changes that NAPGD2022 will bring and the unique impact that it will have on the Pacific Northwest. I have worked in the Pacific Northwest for my entire 18-year career in land surveying. A rule of thumb I was taught was if you are checking into elevations of existing control from an unknown datum and your measurements are around three feet different, the most likely cause is a difference in vertical datum. NAVD88 and NGVD29 are about 3.5 feet apart on average in Oregon. When NAVD88 was introduced in 1991, many cities and counties in Oregon did not update due to cost and stayed on NGVD29. This created a mismatch between many urban and rural communities, but due to the significant difference between the two datums, it was easy to detect. Preliminary models available from NGS on its xGeoid page (https://beta.ngs.noaa. gov/GEOID/xGEOID/) reveal that in the Pacific Northwest, the new NAPGD2022 vertical datum will drop by about one meter in many parts of the state. Because the shift is similar to a gradient, some communities in Oregon will see the new elevations come within 0.10 feet or less of the old NGVD29 elevations, while other areas will have differences of a few tenths up to about one foot compared to NGVD29. According to the current FAQ page, this shift back to seemingly NGVD29 elevations is coincidental. As a result, Oregon surveyors will have to be more careful in the future to determine the datum of existing control, and to adequately define the vertical datum on current projects. In the future, we will Approximate Orthometric Height Change Figure 1: NGS diagram showing the Approximate Orthometric Height Change nationwide, in meters no longer be able to rely on a 3.x-foot difference to warn us of a vertical datum difference. A Statewide Review of Upcoming Elevation Differences To provide a preview of the expected magnitude of the NAVD88 to NAPGD2022 difference and the relationship to NGVD29, I sampled existing NGS vertical control benchmarks (of First Class or better, where available) around the state that had existing NAVD88 elevations and superseded NGVD29 elevations. From there, I used the xGeoid20 Interactive Computation page (https:// computation.shtml) to calculate approximate NAPGD2022 elevations at each location. The results are shown in the table on page 18. To help visualize the shift at a larger scale than Figure 1, I used Trimble Business Center to create a surface model of the difference between NAPGD2022 and NGVD29, which is shown in Figure 2. continues 

18 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 Featured Article Table 1: Calculated datum differences at selected benchmarks

19 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article As can be seen in the above table and figures, the 2022 datum will result in elevations that are around 3.5 feet lower than NAVD88. In places such as Medford, Newport, Salem, and Ontario, NAPGD2022 elevations will fall within a few hundredths of the published NGVD29 benchmark elevation. An area of south-central Oregon between Burns, Lakeview, and Chemult will have an elevation one foot higher than NGVD29. The northwest coast and spots along the Columbia River will drop a few tenths of a foot lower than NGVD29. NGS has stated on their FAQ page (link referenced in first paragraph) that they will not be providing tools to transform between NGVD29 and NAPGD2022 directly. Instead, they will be providing tools that transform NAVD88 to NAPGD2022. For those who need to transform from NGVD29 to NAPGD2022, they recommend intermediate transformations. This means you will need to use VERTCON to go from NGVD29 to NAVD88, and a new tool to go from NAVD88 to NAPGD2022. Of course, if the benchmark still exists and is undisturbed, the best way to get the difference in datums is to directly observe in the new datum and reference frame.  Andrew Plett is a PLSO & ACSM scholarship recipient, and 2006 Oregon Institute of Technology graduate. He has worked in Oregon and Washington since graduation, and currently works with S&F Land Services at their Vancouver, Washington office. Figure 2: The tabular data visualized as a contour map Ronnie Jacko | 503-445-2234 continued 

20 Header The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 Member Spotlight By Vanessa Salvia Scott Freshwaters is PLSO’s incoming Board Chair-Elect, and will become the Chair after Tim Fassbender’s term is over after this year. Many of you likely already know Scott from his work in Bend and Sunriver and his involvement with PLSO since the early 1980s. He comes from a family of engineers — his father was a civil engineer, a grandfather was an electrical engineer, and one of his grandfather’s brothers was a mechanical engineer. While he has that in his blood, so to speak, his family also didn’t pressure him to become an engineer. “They left that up to me,” he says. And his path led him to surveying. “In high school, probably 10th or 11th grade, I did a work study program with the U.S. Forest Service. My boss and I would go out and update trail maps on the Deschutes National Forest.” His boss showed him how to use a stereo plotter, where you take two aerial photographs and put them together as a stereo pair in order to map a new section of the Pacific Crest Trail near Diamond Peak. Scott says he always enjoyed maps and mapping, but in college pursued an Associate of Science degree in electronics technology. Then he and his wife, Dee Anna, moved to Sunnyvale, California, to work in the electronics industry. After living in Bend, California just didn’t hit the mark, so they moved back after nine months. Not long after, he noticed an opening for an engineering assistant position with Deschutes County, which he applied for and got. “That job entailed working on a survey crew, and further down the path designing roads, researching old records, and working for the county surveyor reviewing plats,” Scott says. “And I really enjoyed being outdoors and doing that work, and the office work was alright.” Scott surveyed for the county for 30 years. He retired in 2008 and started his own surveying firm. Scott says the county encouraged his education and sent him to seminars and conferences, He achieved licensure in 1987. Scott and Dee Anna’s eldest son, Luke, has a Bachelor of Science degree in surveying from Oregon Institute of Technology. Luke works for Burlington Northern Railroad and helps his father out on surveying jobs on weekends when he’s available. Scott got involved with PLSO while working for the county with Dave Hoerning in the surveying department. “Dave told me, now that you have passed your LSIT exam, you’re going to join PLSO,” recalls Scott. “He didn’t say ‘you should,’ he said ‘you’re going to join PLSO and here’s the application.’” Scott says PLSO has been “very beneficial” over the years. “Networking, the continuing education, promoting the profession,” he says. “The conferences are great, because you get to see and talk to people, and you may only see them once a year but you develop a relationship with them. It’s a great organization.” Scott has also served as the Legislative Committee Chair. At the next board meeting in March, the group will be tackling the organization’s strategic plan to improve the organization and increase membership, get more involvement from younger surveyors, and also bring more people into Scott Freshwaters, PLS Freshwaters Surveying Inc. Taken in 1990 at an existing control point off Skyliner Road, west of Bend. Taken during a 2000 survey in Laidlaw (now Tumalo. The wooden peg is an original 1904 Lot Corner that is also a Block Corner.

21 Header Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Member Spotlight the profession through career fairs and mentorships, and ride alongs, etc. “This discussion has been going on for a long time and we’ve been taking some steps, but we need to increase our efforts,” says Scott. “I’ll mainly be continuing with the goals that Tim is working on and that Jeremy before him set.” Scott and Dee Anna have been married for 47 years. When Scott’s not busy working, he enjoys hunting, firearms, and his wood shop. He is also active in his church, Calvary Chapel Bend. He says his years in the profession of surveying have been “a real blessing.” “What I like most about it is the variety,” he says. “It may not be true for all surveyors but in my work with the county and then running my own businesses, there’s always a challenge.” Scott went on to tell a story about meeting up with a natural resources specialist for the Sunriver Owners Association who couldn’t find one corner of their common area by a golf course. They searched together using a Schonstedt. When he got a faint signal, they started digging in the frozen ground and eventually found it 1.6 feet down. “She said she had looked for their corner with their Schonstedt but hadn’t found it,” Scott recalled. “But it’s the years of experience that make the difference. I said it was like a treasure hunt and she thought so too. One thing I really like about surveying is finding the hard-to-find monuments or the old piece of wood that was set for a 1/4 corner in 1882. It’s really exciting and gratifying when it works out and you find it.” Scott would like to end this article with a thought and a quote. “We all owe a debt of gratitude to the founders of PLSO and all who have served as board chairs, board and chapter officers, and the various committee chairs and members,” he says. Even though this quote from Theodore Roosevelt is one you may have heard before, Scott says it bears repeating: “Every man owes a part of his time and money to the business or industry in which he is engaged. No man has a moral right to withhold his support from an organization that is striving to improve conditions within his sphere.”  One thing I really like about surveying is finding the hard-to-find monuments or the old piece of wood that was set for a corner marker in 1888. It’s really exciting and gratifying when it works out and you find it. Taken atop Pilot Butte in Bend during National Surveyors Week 2011. From left to right is Mike Berry, Scott Freshwaters, Kevin Samuel, and Gary DeJarnatt. Scott Freshwaters at the 2016 Saddle Butte Machine Gun Shoot near Albany, Oregon.

22 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 2 By Pat Gaylord, PLS Surveyors in the News As Oregon took shape, boundaries throughout the state were reviewed and adjusted. The following is how Kamela came to be a part of northwestern Union County as published in the Daily East Oregonian in 1905. The Daily East Oregonian Pendleton, Oregon Saturday, June 24, 1905 THE LINE IS FIXED COUNTY BOUNDARY COMMISSION ENDS ITS WORK Kamela is given to Union County and the Woodward Toll Gate Settlement to Umatilla—Division of Land is Equitable and the Convenience and Economy of the line as Now Located is Apparent—Legislature Will Now Have to Accept the Report to Make the New Line Legal. In locating the line between Union and Umatilla counties, Kamela was given to Union county and the settlement at the Woodward tollgate was given to Umatilla county, for reasons that presented themselves forcibly to the boundary board. County Surveyor John W. Kimbrell, who represented Umatilla county on the board is well pleased with the work of the board and believes that It made an equitable division of land along the boundary line and placed the line where it will be most economical and convenient for the residents of both Umatilla and Union counties. As most of the land owners and residents of the Woodard tollgate settlement live In Milton and other portions of Umatilla county. It was decided that the entire settlement there, for at least half a mile east of the tollgate proper, should be given to Umatilla county, so there would be no doubt about the residence or location of any one in summoning witnesses or Jurors, or in assessing property. For the same reasons, the entire settlement at Kamela was given to Union county, although the old line divided the village giving a portion to Umatilla and a portion to Union county. Heretofore neighbors living side by side In Kamela have voted at different places, some at Hilgard in Union, and some at Meacham in Umatilla, and In summoning jurors and others needed In legal proceedings. It has been difficult to decide where they belonged. The matter Is permanently fixed now and all the settlement at Kamela, for a half mile west of the village is given to Union County. All that remains of the work of the board, before the line is made legal, is for it to present a report to the next session of the legislature for its final adoption, and then surveys can be made and boundary monuments erected. 