PLSO The Oregon Surveyor November/December 2023

Surveying With My Dad.......................... pg 8 Member 18 The Oregon November/December 2023 A publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon

Editorials From the PLSO Chair, by Tim Fassbender, PLS, PLSO Board Chair 2 From the PLSO Office, by Aimee McAuliffe, PLSO Executive Secretary 4 Featured Articles Surveying With My Dad, by John W. Hawthorne, PLS #1009 (1974) 8 Wanted: Surveyors and Leaders, by Jeremy Sherer, PLS 12 Old Trails and Tales, by Chuck "Rusty" Whitten, PLS (retired) 14 Columns Member Spotlight, by Vanessa Salvia 18 On the Cover John Blaikie took this photo while 3D laser scanning below river level at The Dalles Dam navigation lock. Photo courtesy of John Blaikie. The Oregon Surveyor is a publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon (PLSO). It is provided as a medium for the expression of individual opinions concerning topics relating to the Land Surveying profession. Address changes & business All notifications for changes of address, membership inquiries, and PLSO business correspondence should be directed to Aimee McAuliffe, PO Box 230548, Tigard, OR 97281; 503-303-1472; Editorial matters & contributions of material The Oregon Surveyor welcomes your articles, comments, and photos for publication. PLSO assumes no responsibility for statements expressed in this publication. Editorial matters should be directed to Vanessa Salvia, Advertising policy Advertising content and materials are subject to approval of the PLSO Board and LLM Publications. The publisher reserves the right to reject any advertising that simulates copy; material must be clearly marked as “Advertisement.” For advertising, contact: Ronnie Jacko,; 503-445-2234 A publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon Executive Secretary Aimee McAuliffe PO Box 230548 Tigard, OR 97281 503-303-1472 Toll-free: 844-284-5496 Published by LLM Publications 503-445-2220 Advertising Ronnie Jacko, Design Hope Sudol © 2023 LLM Publications Editor Vanessa Salvia Publications Committee Tim Kent, Interim Chair Pat Gaylord Contents Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon @ORLandSurveyors The Oregon Vol. 46, No. 6 November/December 2023

2 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 From the PLSO Chair MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR Tim Fassbender, PLS PLSO Board Chair As my year as Chair for PLSO comes to an end, it causes me to pause and reflect on what we as a Board of Directors have dealt with and accomplished. I won’t bore you with the typical highlights of the year as many can and will do, but instead I would like to focus more on what we as an organization are working on for the upcoming year. I have spent most of my year as Chair trying to encourage people to enter the surveying profession. We have two general areas to recruit from: younger school age people still learning what type of work is out there that may interest them and the people wanting to change professions because they found that land surveying seems to pull at their desires. At the Board of Directors meeting in early October, the board decided to hire a person who puts together short videos on subjects of interest. In our case, this person will put together videos on different aspects of land surveying that we will then place on the social media platforms with the hopes that school-age people will see them and come forward to learn more about entering the profession. These videos will also help in attracting those wanting to change professions but need more information before pursuing the move. We hope these social media outreach videos will do some of the recruitment that we miss from the “good ole days” of hiring people to be on the field crews during the summer. Technology has hurt us in that aspect, but hopefully technology will help us now in recruitment into our profession. Another program that the Board approved at the October meeting was the Emerging Leadership program that Jeremy Sherer has developed and launched. It is a simple idea: Offer the opportunity to our new members who wish to learn more about PLSO and the surveying profession through a series of lessons over a period of a year. The Board approved the waving of the Conference registration for those signing up and attending the beginning class to be held at the conference. Jeremy has worked hard on this lesson plan and has included some very valuable information that will aid in anyone’s career. I encourage those interested in learning more about the Emerging Leadership program to look at it on the PLSO webpage and touch base with Jeremy for more details. We believe it will help all that are involved and our profession. And now for something completely different. One of the benefits of being a land surveyor and a PLSO member, in my mind, is the variety of locations and types of survey projects you hopefully have the pleasure of working on. Let’s face it, there are not many professions where you can work at the coast one week, then work in the valley over the next few days, and then find yourself in the high desert in eastern Oregon for a few days. Now I know it doesn’t always happen that way, but the point is there are times when you can work beyond whatever small area is near where you live. That is also a great selling point for our potential new surveyors who like and appreciate variety. So, what is the downfall of traveling around the state to various areas for work? Researching the existing surveys and other related information you need to accomplish your project. In my experience I have found (and I’m sure you have also) that not all counties and cities have their survey information set up in the same manner. There can be many “potholes” that you can fall into when you think you have all the information and later find out you missed an important part. One of the benefits of being a PLSO member is the fact it’s easier to reach out to the city or county surveyor and ask about these potential issues and ask for some help. Through being a member of PLSO,

3 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | I have spent most of my year as Chair trying to encourage people to enter the surveying profession. We have two general areas to recruit from, the younger school age group still learning what type of work is out there that may interest them and the person wanting to change professions because they found that land surveying seems to pull at their desires. From the PLSO Chair I’ve also developed friendships with many surveyors across the state who are more than happy to share their advice and tips and tricks about the area they primarily work in. As they say, “variety is the spice of life” and that is certainly true about the survey profession. The point I’m trying to make is that being a member of PLSO gives you opportunities that aid you in your daily work that a non-member may not have. There is nothing worse than finishing up a project and turning in that survey, then learning that you missed an important bit of information that could or would change your solution. I think that has happened to some if not all of us during our career. I have always been grateful for that phone call to someone who is willing to listen and to be able to evaluate the advice given. To ignore that call is closing your mind leading you into a corner you may not be able to survey out of. We try to help each other out and that helps our reputation with the public. Being a member of PLSO gives you the opportunity to meet other fellow surveyors at the monthly chapter meetings and at the Annual Conference to share stories and experiences and make new relationships. Get involved in PLSO and see what benefits appear that you never thought about would happen. It may save you from that embarrassing “oops” moment in your career. But being a PLSO member already, this is nothing new, is it?  How to Send Us Your Work Please email the editor Vanessa Salvia with submissions: Your submission should be in .doc format. Please send images separately (not embedded in the document) and at the highest file size available (MB size range versus KB size range—larger sizes are encouraged). Please include the author’s name and email address or phone number for contact.

4 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 From the PLSO Office Aimee McAuliffe, PLSO Exec. Secretary The Impact and Importance of Scholarships to the Community As nature slows down and prepares for winter, fall is often a time for reflection. Our holidays are geared towards giving thanks and gratitude for the many blessings in life. It is also a time of bringing blessings to our community by fostering positive change, promoting well-being, and creating a supportive and inclusive environment. For PLSO, this involves our scholarship program. Not only is it an important tool to help create more land surveyors, but scholarships play a vital role in supporting our community in several ways, creating a profound impact for all of us. 1. Education Access: Scholarships help make higher education opportunities more accessible to individuals who might not be able to afford to attend college or university, fostering skill development, and a more educated society. By covering tuition fees, textbooks, and other educational expenses, scholarships reduce the financial burden on students. This allows them to focus on their studies and professional growth without worrying excessively about financial constraints. 2. Economic Growth, Workforce Development, and Entrepreneurship: Scholarships help build the local workforce, making them more attractive to potential employers. Or, the recipients could start their own surveying businesses within the community, creating jobs, and contributing to the local economy. 3. Social Upliftment: Scholarships enable talented individuals to lift themselves and their families out of poverty, leading to improved living standards. Increasing opportunities for more women in STEM also promotes gender equality. Educated women tend to invest back into their communities, creating a positive cycle of development. 4. Professional Community Pride and Identity: When future community members receive scholarships and excel in their fields, it fosters a sense of pride and inspiration to participate in PLSO, leading to a more engaged and vibrant community. To support the land surveying community through outreach and scholarship, be sure to attend the Education & Outreach Auction on January 18 at the 2024 PLSO Conference, January 17–19 at the Salem Convention Center or purchase a raffle ticket at

5 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | From the PLSO Office continues  PLSO is able to work towards making this type of impact through its scholarships program. We pool all scholarship money through the Oregon Community Foundation (OCF), which runs its scholarship and financial aid application process through Office of Student Access and Completion (OSAC). OCF is a shared foundation of Oregon organizations. Once PLSO allocates funds to OCF, it is considered a donation and it is no longer in the control of PLSO. Annual scholarships are awarded each year from the dividends of the account. Each March, PLSO receives a statement detailing how much money is in the PLSO account and the dividends yielded to be awarded by June. PLSO has the option to donate money for the current year to increase the amount of scholarship funds. Any money, dividends, or current-year donations not used for scholarships goes back into OCF to be available the following year. PLSO provides various scholarships, with the selection process running independently, conducted by a primary PLSO scholarship committee (made up of PLSO members) and a PLSO scholarship oversight committee (made up of a majority of non-surveyors and the PLSO scholarship chair and the PLSO chair). Our scholarships include: Bill Guile & L. Brian Weigart Scholarships: Must be enrolled in curriculum leading to land-surveying careers and must be intending to take the Fundamentals of Land Surveying Exam. This year’s recipients are worthy recipients. Austin Martin received a $3,000 award to attend Oregon Institute of Technology as a junior and plans to study surveying engineering. Austin is from Klamath Falls and attended Hood River Valley High School. Austin is the first in their family to attend college. Michael Sanchez received a $4,000 award to attend Oregon Institute of Technology as a sophomore and plans to study surveying technology/surveying. Michael is from Klamath Falls and attended Lebanon High School. Lastly, Cody Therault received a $4,500 award to attend Oregon Institute of Technology as a senior and plans to study surveying technology/surveying. Cody is from Central Point. Sue Newstetter Scholarship: Recipients must also be working towards a career in land surveying, giving preference to female students, or in case of no female applicants, those pursuing a surveying career in a rural area. This year’s recipient is Caitlin Lien, who received a $4,500 award to attend Oregon Institute of Technology as a sophomore and plans to study civil engineering. Caitlin is from Baker City and attended Baker High School. Peter Maring Scholarship: Children, stepchildren, adopted children of PLSO members, and individuals who are under the legal guardianship or were under the legal guardianship up until the age 18, or grandchildren of PLSO members pursuing a post-secondary education in any field of study are eligible to apply for the

6 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 From the PLSO Office Pete Maring Scholarship. This year Elizabeth Sherer received a $1,000 award to attend Central Oregon Community College as a freshman and plans to study psychology. Elizabeth is from Springfield and attended Thurston High School. William Erickson received a $1,000 award to attend Oregon State University as a junior and plans to study computer and information sciences. William is from Eugene and attended Henry D. Sheldon High School. For those interested, the timeline for the scholarship allocation process is as follows: • October 1: Scholarship and financial aid application process begins. Although this year, FAFSA does not open until December. • November 1: Education and Outreach Raffle ticket sales open. • January 18: PLSO Education & Outreach Auction. • February 15: Early bird student application deadline. (Early bird applicants are given the opportunity to correct mistakes. Error-free applicants are entered into a drawing for a $1,000 scholarship.) • March: PLSO Board votes to designate auction monies, verifying for the committee how much money may be awarded for the current year. “The scholarship money goes a long way. I hope to make the surveying profession proud with my dedication to excellent studies and quality work in my career. Thank you for your generosity.” – Abraham Barr, Bill Guile & L. Brian Weigart Scholarship Recipient You can support the 2024 Education & Outreach Auction in three different ways! 1 Purchase a Scholarship Raffle Ticket for $20 for a chance to win $1,000! Winner does not need to be present at the auction. Tickets are on sale at for $20. 3 Attend the 2024 Education & Outreach Auction on January 18, 2024, at the Salem Convention Center! 2 Donate an item to the auction. The Auction Committee is currently seeking donations for the silent and live auctions. Ideas include gift baskets, artwork, sporting events, and outdoor experiences. Contact Committee Chair Robert Hamman at • April 1: This year the student application deadline is a month later to accommodate for FAFSA changes. • April to May: Scholarship Committee and Oversight Panel designated by Scholarship Chair go through the process of selecting scholarship applicants and award amounts. • May to August: OSAC sends scholarship notifications via email to students. To support the land surveying community through outreach and scholarship, be sure to attend the Education & Outreach Auction on January 18 at the 2024 PLSO Conference, January 17–19 at the Salem Convention Center or purchase a raffle ticket at  continued 

7 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | 2024 CONFERENCE Your Place for Continuing Education | January 17-19 | Salem Conference Center Register at before January 1st for the Early Bird Discount LET’S GET TOGETHER 2024 CONFERENCE Your Place for Continuing Education | January 17-19 | Salem Conference Center Register at before January 1st for the Early Bird Discount LET’S GET TOGETHER Register to attend in person or purchase an online seminar package Earn PDH credits with national and local experts Visit with vendors and geomatics students face-to-face Support our future workforce at the Education & Outreach Auction Dinner The PLSO Conference is where friendship and learning come together. You’ll connect with people that care about the professional surveying community. Save Money Through Membership at! Register to attend in person or purchase an online seminar package Earn PDH credits with national and local experts Visit with vendors and geomatics students face-to-face Support our future workforce at the Education & Outreach Auction Dinner The PLSO Conference is where friendship and learning come together. You’ll connect with people that care about the professional surveying community. Save Money Through Membership at!

8 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 Featured Article D eschutes County Surveyor Kevin Samuel encouraged me to write a narrative about my experiences surveying with my Dad, Jean Wm. Hawthorne, PLS#454. I worked for him during my high school and college years of 1958 to 1968. He got his PLS in 1958 and became the first full-time private land surveyor in Central Oregon. I fell in love with surveying while attending Oregon State University majoring in civil engineering and minoring in surveying. I got my PLS in 1974, and my PE in 1984. SURVEYING WITH DAD A tribute to Jean Wm. Hawthorne, PLS #454 (1958) By John W. Hawthorne, PLS #1009 (1974) My Dad, Jean Wm. Hawthorne, earned his Professional Land Surveyor (PLS) license in October 1958, at the age of 46. At that time he was working under forester Hans Milius in the Forestry Department at Brooks Scanlon Lumber Company in Bend, Oregon. Sometime in late 1959, he quit his job there and started his fulltime surveying practice in Central Oregon as the only full-time surveyor that I know of at that time. To study for the PLS exam, he turned the milk parlor in our failed dairy into his study room and disappeared each evening. His hard work paid off. He got the highest score that year on the exam! Some background history prior to my Dad’s getting his license: My Dad was born in Ainsworth, Nebraska, on October 16, 1912. His father was a farmer. His family moved 100 miles north to Kimball, South Dakota a few years later by wagon. He rode a horse to a one-room schoolhouse that included Native Americans. School Census shows him from ages 6 to 11 in South Dakota. The family later moved to Kansas, where he graduated from Salina High School on June 4, 1929, a year early for his age. That was the beginning of the Great Depression (1929–1939). His father lost the farm and they moved to California. From 1932 to 1936, he attended Fresno State College. He initially majored in geology, but switched to mineralogy after finding that he could get work in the mining industry. My Dad left college before graduating in order to go to work. Work was precious during the Great Depression. My Dad worked as an assayer and in general mining operations in mines in Nevada from 1936 to 1938, then in Alaska, ranging from Juneau to Fairbanks, until WWII. He first learned how to survey in hardrock gold mines at the Alaska Juneau Gold Mine in Juneau, Alaska, where surveyor’s reference points are in the top of the tunnel! ( Juneau_Gold_Mining_Company). WWII began in 1941, my Dad began working for the Army Corps of Engineers at Fort Richardson in Anchorage, Alaska, where he gained surveying experience in railroad construction (he later used the railroad experience at Brooks-Scanlon in laying out a new spur line at the lumber mill) and general base construction. He had an order to report for induction on April 30, 1942, but was classified 4F due to a hernia and was frozen on his job with the Corps. My Dad later went to Seattle and had the hernia repaired. On August 31, 1942, he enrolled in the Alaska Territorial Guard and was discharged on September 30, 1944, after moving to Oregon. Many Americans may not be aware of the importance of Alaska during WWII. The United States spent $1.25 billion fighting the Japanese in the Aleutian Islands. Air bases were critical, including the air base at Fort Richardson. My parents said that they saw planes that were shot up after coming back. My Dad met my Mother during WWII. She also was a civilian working for the Army Corps of Engineers, as a secretary. She was from Queens, New York and had been to Alaska prior to the John with his father’s Gurley, manufactured in 1931, which John inherited. The Gurley was already 27 years old when his father bought it. Jean Wm. Hawthorne’s high school graduation photo.

9 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article continues  war on a vacation in 1940. For a woman from Queens, the wide-open spaces of Alaska were a wonder. That experience led her to decide to fly to Seattle in September of 1942 and volunteer to go to Alaska. She was shipped to Alaska on a ship convoy. My parents met on the job while my Mother was collecting time sheets. My Dad won out over all the officers in courting my Mother. They married in late December 1943, and moved to Eugene, Oregon, in early 1944 to start their family. WWII ended in 1945. My sister was born on November 12, 1944, and I was born on November 9, 1946. In 1948, my parents moved to Central Oregon and bought a 1,000 acre ranch on Deschutes Market Road, which included 110 acres of cultivated land with water rights. Specifically, the ranch comprised the east half of Section 35 and Section 36, Township 16 South, Range 12 East, Willamette Meridian; it was pretty much surrounded by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) property to the east, north, and south of Section 36. Our ranch house was a half mile off Deschutes Market Road. That ranch house is now a vacation rental called The Bend Country Cabin (https:// The old milk parlor, where my Dad studied for his PLS exam, is now one of the rentals, and I have rented the ranch house numerous times with family and friends. My Dad was never successful at farming and ranching, and had to “work out” to support our family and the ranch. The weather, market timing, and health issues were always working against him. During that time he gained more surveying experience with the Soil Conservation Service (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service) between 1949 and 1953 in Redmond, and later with Brooks- Scanlon Lumber Company in Bend between 1956 and 1959. He gained valuable skills recovering lost government corners when surveying lands owned by Brooks- Scanlon prior to its logging operations. While going through family letters, photos, etc., I found an employment record for Jean Wm. Hawthorne covering the time prior to his earning his PLS license. There was a handwritten copy, and a copy that my Mother had typed since she had the typing skills in the family. I have included a retyped copy at the end. This document gives more detailed background of my Dad’s early surveying experience and varied work experiences. His surveying experience started during the summer when he was going to college at Fresno State College in California. He had held a job with the US Geological Survey in southeast Alaska as a topographical engineer’s helper. He had told me stories of living on a boat while doing topographic surveying of the inside passage. It sounded like he had a great time. My surveying experience began in the eighth grade. I remember first helping my Dad soon after he got his PLS license when I was in the eighth grade at Tumalo Grade School, and he was still working at Brooks-Scanlon shortly before he quit. I am pretty sure that the job I helped with was off of Cline Falls Highway, just out of Tumalo, close to the Deschutes River. That is where he taught me to use July 1948 at the original house on the county road before we moved half a mile in to the original ranch house where there was no power or running water at first until they had a cistern built and power line installed. All water came from the irrigation ditches.

10 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 Featured Article a plumb bob, and hold the end of the 100' chain with the right tension, and to give him a sight while holding the plumb bob, if needed. Our ranch was in the Redmond School District, even though we lived closer to Bend (nine miles to Bend but eleven miles to Redmond). My Dad finally sold the ranch in the summer of 1963 and we moved into Bend, at 659 East Franklin Street, which was within walking distance of Bend Senior High School. I graduated from Bend Senior High School in 1964. Surveying with my Dad was primarily during summers in high school and college. I was always working on the ranch with him, and got used to not being paid but always being provided for; that’s the way of a family farm. In exchange for helping my Dad survey in the summers, he paid for my college education. He believed that a college degree was important, because he never completed his degree and he thought it had held him back. One time I calculated that my higher education cost my Dad the equivalent of paying me a minimum wage for my work for him. My higher education has been worth every penny to me. The experience and support that I received was outstanding. I went to Central Oregon Community College my first year, taking pre-engineering classes; then I transferred to Oregon State University (OSU) and majored in civil engineering, primarily to get a surveying education. I essentially minored in surveying, with a class in surveying every term for three years. Professors Shultz and Seaders were my instructors. I soon found out that Professor ShuItz knew my Dad. I was hooked on surveying. This was Vietnam War time, and I was facing the draft. I was fortunate because I was able to use my education in the military. I applied and took a competitive exam for the Navy Civil Engineering Corps, and was accepted. OSU was in the top ten engineering schools nationally and my education there paid off in my seeking this assignment. Several of my classmates were also accepted. I went to NAVOC in Newport, Rhode Island, on January 3, 1969, and upon graduation on May 9,1969, I was assigned to Seabee Battalion Three, stationed at Port Hueneme, California. My first 8-month deployment was Okinawa as Engineering Officer. I was in charge of 20 Engineering Aides. A second deployment took me to Da Nang, Vietnam, as Charlie Company Commander, overseeing about 60 men who did general concrete, steel, and timber construction. I was released from active duty on May 10, 1971, moved to Gresham, Oregon, and started my surveying career. Our Equipment To start his surveying business, my Dad needed survey equipment, and since he didn’t have much money, he bought a used transit that he had found in central Oregon. It was a Gurley with a 30-minute vernier. I inherited it and, based on the serial number, it was manufactured in 1931; it was 27 years old when he bought it. The leveling screws had seen plenty of use, and they were on their way out. I have used this transit since my retirement for leveling projects around my house, and it’s a challenge to get it leveled. The tripod must have been worn out, so my Dad bought a new tripod. He also got a new 100-foot steel tape for measuring distances. He bought a couple of Hudson Bay axes for clearing line and driving stakes. I still have one of his axes. My Dad occasionally would break an axe handle, and he would just buy a new axe. When he retired, he replaced all the broken handles that I had inherited. I kept one axe and gave away about four axes to friends. I love that axe. Here is a link to the history and background of the Hudson Bay axe: https://www.awesomeaxes. com/what-is-a-hudson-bay-axe/. continued  Our first survey vehicle was our family ranch vehicle, a Chevy Carryall with a four-speed shift on the floor with compound low. We could go amazing places in compound low. I had learned to drive our Case tractor as soon as I could reach the clutch, and got my drivers license when I was a sophomore in high school. I did most of the driving while working for my Dad. (I was also the primary family driver to keep the domestic peace: neither of my parents liked the other’s driving.) When my Dad sold the ranch and moved into Bend after being in business for three to four years, he upgraded his Gurley to a Wild T2 one-second theodolite! He also traded the Chevy Carryall for a used Jeep Wagoneer with a straight six, and purchased a new American Rambler for a family car. That Rambler was a great car to take a girl out on a date! Later still, after my Dad started making more money while I was in college, he purchased a new Jeep Wagoneer with a V-8 for the family car. My Dad told me that when it was time to put the Jeep into four-wheel drive, it was time to turn around. We mostly used the four-wheel drive on snow when skiing at Mt. Bachelor. Near the end of my college years, my Dad switched to a Kern DKM2 theodolite, which he used for the remainder of his surveying years. Dad had followed the problems Heinrich Wild had with the Wild Company, and joined Kern Aarau, where he designed an even better competing Okinawa 1969–70. John wearing Marine greens; Seabees support the Marines. John by the Chevy Carryall.

Ronnie Jacko 503-445-2234 11 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article theodolite with a unique tripod for quick centering over the survey point, which allowed using a cam system for leveling instead of traditional leveling screws. Now to begin with some actual surveying experiences.  Editor’s Note: Keep reading online at Magazine/SurveyingwithDad.pdf John sitting on the Jeep Wagoneer tailgate. Jean at Mt. Bachelor.

12 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 Featured Article WANTED: Surveyors and Leaders By Jeremy Sherer, PLS What will our profession look like in 10 to 20 years? Are we flourishing or failing? Surveying is a critical path in utility, infrastructure, and building projects that affects the ability of landowners, engineers, contractors, and suppliers’ ability to complete projects on time (according to the 2022 Survey Taskforce). Presently, there are 750 employed surveyors and 72 professional and paraprofessional openings. The employment growth rate is expected to outpace the state average at 17.5% (Occupation Profiles, State of Oregon Employment Department). The number of licensed surveyors in Oregon has dropped by 63% in the last 20 years to approximately 775. Of those remaining surveyors, 69% are over the age of 51, and 43% are over the age of 61. Few are graduating from surveying programs across the state (2022 Survey Taskforce). If these statistics continue the same path over the next 10 to 20 years, the demand for surveyors will be out of balance with the supply. We need surveyors. Over the last 20 years, PLSO has promoted the profession through outreach and advertising, but we also need to plan for succession and retention. The PLSO strategic plan addresses the latter and includes plans for 1) Promoting the Profession (recruitment), 2) Improving Leadership in the Organization (succession), and 3) Membership (retention). Recruiting qualified surveyor candidates is challenging, yet our strategy should go beyond promoting the profession; it should include a holistic approach that creates a climate for human flourishing that recognizes our desire for security and meaning. Developing leadership traits and skill in the rising generation is a plan Professional excellence and flourishing. We need future leaders. At the 2024 Conference, PLSO is introducing the Emerging Leaders Practicum, to address the need for leadership. This program supports our strategic plan to Improve Leadership (Goal 3) within our Organization. General Overview: The Emerging Leaders program is a chapter- sponsored mentorship practicum for the emerging leaders identified in your chapter. The Emerging Leaders practicum falls under the Leadership Academy program developed, implemented, and managed by the Practices Committee. Framework: The general practicum framework includes an understanding of the past (our history) and answers the question, "Who are we?"; the present (our practices) and answers the question, "What is expected?"; and the future (our vision) and answers the question, "How do we get there?" By the end of the practicum, the Emerging Leader will know or be familiar with six areas of professional competencies: • Organization—identify the PLSO founders; know the PLSO structure, mission, and ethical standards • History—identify key events from Oregon surveyor history and past county surveyors • Competencies—personal and professional competencies; the role of a surveyor in society • Communication—persuasive writing/oration • Leadership—practices, principles, and traits of a good leader • Law, Logic, and Learning—critical thinking and problem-solving methods When: January 17–19, 2024, and ending at the next PLSO Conference in 2025. Where: The first meeting will be at the PLSO Conference. Subsequent sessions will be held monthly via BlueJeans and during chapter meetings and determined between the mentor and mentee. Who: PLSO members identified as Emerging Leaders within your chapter. Oversight is by the Chapter President and is supported by the PLSO Practices Committee. Cost: Your time and effort. There may be nominal fees for materials if needed. The successful candidate will also receive free admission to the 2024 and 2025 conferences. Training the next generation of surveyors and leaders is a commitment. The Emerging Leadership program is your opportunity to guide the next generation toward a path of professional excellence. The program needs mentors and mentees that are committed to our survey profession and this organization. If you can’t make a commitment to be a mentor, the program also needs presenters for the topics mentioned above. If you are interested, please contact Jeremy A. Sherer at 541-517-8205, fill out the mentor-mentee agreement (this may be done later), and then come to the first meeting at the PLSO 2024 Conference. 

13 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon |

14 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 Featured Article OLD TRAILS AND TALES By Chuck “Rusty” Whitten, PLS (retired) There are many names of mountains, lakes, creeks, etc. on maps that are familiar, but some may be the “second names” of various features. For example, Outerson Mountain (about 2 1/2 miles northeast of Highway 22 at Whitewater Creek) was first known as Bald Mountain for many years. In 1892, U.S. Deputy Surveyor William Bushey refers to it as he was surveying the North Boundary of Township 10 South, Range 7 East which ran East and West roughly on the high divide between the North Santiam River to the south and the Breitenbush River to the north. Since there were several other “Bald Mountains" around, to avoid confusion, the Forest Service later changed the name to Outerson mountain, honoring an early pioneer in the North Santiam area. At 21 years of age, John Minto (born in England in 1822) left his father's home in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania, in February of 1844 and headed for the Oregon Country. The wagon trains had just started to head west about that time from St. Louis. He arrived in the Salem area late that year and eventually settled there and became a respected citizen and farmer. At that time, there were only two Indian trails that crossed the Cascade Mountains. The southern one was along the South Santiam River and the northern trail was via Table Rock and down the Abiqua drainage. The Indians of the Chemeketa, Chemawa, and Willamette tribes spoke with dread of going up the North Santiam River since it had a great gorge, and in John Minto’s words “the gorge by which the river cuts its way through the roughest portion [between Little Sweden and Blowout Creek] is such as to give great numbers of opportunity for ambuscades [ambushes], a common Resort of Indian warfare.” Minto goes on to say “trappers...who had settled... continued to use the trail up the North Santiam Valley until 1844–45, when the country reached by it [became] trapped out.” In 1846, a committee of six citizens from Salem was appointed to make an examination of the trail. The head of the group consisted of Col.l Cornelius Gilliam, Joseph Gervais, and T.C. Shaw, later becoming a county judge of Marion County in 1887, and three others. Shaw reported that the trail did not then pass through the narrow gorge. Instead it “took over the tops of the most broken and rugged portion of the range.” They proceeded easterly until they came to what they termed “scaly rock mountain” [possibly either Rocky Top or Sardine Mt.?] which Colonel Gilliam pronounced “impossible for wagons.” The party returned to Salem and from 1846 to 1873, that pathway was unused and to a great extent, forgotten. In October of 1873, two hunters in search of good game range penetrated up the north bank of the river through the gorge before mentioned. They found that about 12 miles from the “then settlement” on King's Prairie, about a mile south of Gates, the valley widened out amd the mountains seemed lower. One of the hunters, Henry States, being unable to proceed on account of a sprained ankle, sent for John Minto to tell him of their findings and “rediscovery” of the route. Minto then went to the Marion County board of commissioners and repeated the statements of the hunters. One of the commissioners was a neighbor to a former Hudson's Bay leader named Tom McKay and had often heard him speak of the North Santiam as being the shortest and best way across the Cascades. A short consultation among the commissioners “resulted” in an order to Mr. Minto to take two comrades and proceed up the valley of the North Santiam until he was satisfied whether it made such a natural cut into the range or not. After an absence of 12 days, the party returned and Minto reported a deep valley almost dividing the range. In early 1874, a viewing and survey of the proposed route was ordered. Viewers were John Minto, Porter Jack [Jack Porter?] and George S. Downing with T.W. Davenport as surveyor. Timothy W. Davenport, then 25 years old, came across the Oregon Trail in 1851 with his family who then settled in the Waldo Hills South of Silverton. (He had first started surveying as a compassman for a U.S. Deputy Surveyor in Washington Territory John Minto, coal miner, farmer, fine wool sheep importer, mountain explorer and road builder, legislator, historian, and poet. Public domain photo from Gaston’s “Portland, Oregon, its History and Builders volume 1.” Chuck Whitten scanned this image from his original copy of “Looters of the Public Domain” (1908) by Stephen A.D. Puter from page 147.

15 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article in 1853. From 1864 to 1868 he was the Marion County Surveyor.) The survey was made and the viewer's report in favor of an “excellent roadway” was made to the Marion County Commissioners in August of 1874. The general route started on the east bank of the Willamette River at Salem and then proceeding 83 miles easterly and southeasterly to the summit of the Cascades at what is now known as Minto Pass, about 3 miles northeast of Three Fingered Jack and about 3 miles southeast of Marion Lake. During the viewing and surveying of the route, and old and deeply worn trail was found leading up to the pass and continuing easterly. That trail gives some support to the Indian tradition of a former native thoroughfare leading down the valley towards Detroit. After the viewing and survey reports, several unknown parties filed articles of incorporation for a company to construct a railroad through the pass. It turned out to be all speculation, but had the effect of weakening public interest in constructing a road, only to see it later destroyed by railroad interests. An association was formed in late 1874, however, to construct a stock trail beginning near Gates and running easterly along the north side of the Santiam. It was completed at a cost of $1,800, and was generally always within sight or sound of the river. About 3/4 mile west of the Bruno Mountain Bridge (located just west of the former Big Springs Campground) John Minto had to locate his trail on the hillside to get above the cliffs along the north side of the river. The route along the steep hillside crossed a talus slope (picture 3). With the advent of lidar (light detection and ranging), it is now possible to capture an image of the ground even if it's covered with dense timber. A specially equipped plane flies over the area and emits laser pulses downward which then bounce back to a receiver in the plane. Some of them bounce off tree tops while others bounce off the ground. The signal strength determines which is which. The resulting lidar image in this case is shown in picture 2 and was taken about 5,000 feet vertically above the site. It is amazing that Minto's 2-foot wide trail on the hillside is still visible after 148 years. William Bushey, the U.S. Deputy Surveyor mentioned near the beginning of this article, noted settlers within Township 10 South, Range 7 East in his field notes as 3 WAYS OF SEEING Below are three images of the same portion of the Minto Trail using different technology: aerial photo imaging, lidar imaging, and traditional cartography. Aerial photo image of a portion of the Minto Trail. Match the numbers on this photo with the numbered photos on page 16 for a ground view. Using lidar (light detection and ranging), it is possible to capture an image of the ground showing Minto’s trail, even when it’s covered with dense timber. A traditional map that illustrates the same portion of the Minto Trail shown above. continues 

16 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 Featured Article Photo 3 Photo 4 Photo 5

17 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article he ran the section lines, as well as creeks, rivers, ridges, and trails that cross those lines. One of those settlers was a fellow named Joseph L. Peasley who claimed 120 acres in Section 28. There is a swampy, shallow lake alongside Highway 22 that my dad always called Peasley Lake, although I never saw a sign with that name on it. (I would bet that some of the remaining “old timers” would also know it by that name.) The lake is almost a quarter mile northerly from the intersection of Highway 22 with the Pamelia Lake Road. The highway actually bisects the swampy “lake” with the majority of it being east of the road. I recall Harry White, while working for the U.S. Forest Service, telling me about finding a dilapidated cabin on the east side of the “swamp.” He also noted that the settler (probably Peasley) had dug a ditch running north from the north end of the “lake” to drain it. obviously to enable growing a garden since the nearest 7-Eleven was far away. That ditch is also clearly visible on a lidar image. When John Minto was viewing the road in 1874 along with T.W. Davenport, they named several features along the route. Boulder Creek, immediately west of Idanha (which was then known as Muskrat Camp) was named by Davenport and is full of large boulders to this day, just as it was in 1874. Minto Mountain was actually named by an unknown writer who passed by it on his way to open a trail for Minto Pass to Black Butte in 1879. Minto had first seen the flat-topped mountain with meadows on top (now known as Minto Mountain) after he had climbed a tree in 1873 on his first trip to the area to view the terrain to the south. The next major stream east of Boulder Creek they called “the White.” Minto relates that “In August, the snow melts from the southwest slopes of Jefferson and runs through volcanic ash as fine as bolted flour and it enters the main Santiam like thickened milk, coloring it down to Mehama sometimes.” The stream later became known as Whitewater Creek. Minto goes on to say “I gave the name Pamelia Creek to the next stream that flows off from the slopes of Mount Jefferson and the name now attaches to the lake at its south base. The name was given for Pamelia Ann Berry, because of her cheerfulness as one of the girl cooks of the working party, of which her father and sister were valued members.” The viewing party continued south about 3 miles and arrived at what they name Independence Valley since they stopped and rested there on the Fourth of July in 1874. A log cabin was built there in the 1890s and was known as Daly’s Cabin. it was about a half mile Northeast of where the Marion Forks Restaurant is today. The 1914 Santiam National Forest map showed it as Independence Prairie. In about 1913, LeRoy Grafe’s family moved to Gates and LeRoy went to work for John Schroeder who had a steam Sawmill and needed someone to help him run it. He soon was “taken captive” by the boss’s attractive blonde daughter Gladys, whom he married on June 14, 1914. In 1915, LeRoy went to work for the Forest Service and he and Gladys spent the summer at Daly’s Cabin. LeRoy directed some of his helpers to chase down reported fires, maintain phone lines, etc. (Daly’s Cabin was “rebuilt” for the USFS in the 1980s with new sill logs, roof, etc by Jim Kitzhaber of Gates.) The 1931 Santiam NF map shows the site as the Independence Prairie Guard Station. The 1937 Santiam NF map shows the Marion Creek Guard Station at the new location along Highway 22 across from the fish hatchery. (The Grafe’s son Willis grew up in the Gates area and was an avid historian and later became the Linn County Engineer.) At Independence Prairie, Minto’s trail turns easterly towards Marion Lake following what they then called the “east branch” of the Santiam River. (They were actually going up what is known today as Marion Creek.) The first major waterfall encountered was named Gatch’s Falls for Prof. T.M. Gatch, president of OAC (Oregon Agricultural College) by election of the parties, the young members all having been his students. In the 1880s, Nathan M. Gooch took a “squatter’s claim” (since the area was un-surveyed until 1900) that included the falls and he built a small cabin nearby. His family later owned the land and always called them Gooch Falls. In 1970, the Oregon Geographic Names Board settled on the name Gooch Falls due to its long usage. The OGLB then decided to name another falls upstream for Gatch, but have not yet acted on it. Minto’s party then proceeded upstream and named the next waterfall Orla Falls. This was coined by the younger members of the company who had danced with Miss Orla Davenport, oldest daughter of their surveyor, T.W. Davenport. Continuing east the viewers came to a large lake, which they named Marion Lake. Looking south across the lake they saw a “rocky peak of many pinnacles” that they named Mount Marion. The peak was locally called Three-fingered Jack. In the early 1900s, Tam McArthur, author of “Oregon Geographic Names,” was told that “the present name was applied because of a three-fingered trapper who lived nearby, whose name was Jack.”  Chuck (aka “Rusty”) Whitten grew up in Mill City and graduated in 1967 from Oregon State University with a BS in Forest Engineering and is still a licensed land surveyor in Oregon and Washington (retired). He has lived near Battle Ground, Washington, since 1977. One of his hobbies since retirement has been writing occasional stories for the North Santiam Historical Society Newsletter (in Mill City) about early history in the North Santiam Canyon. This article originally appeared in the Spring 2023 newsletter of the North Santiam Historical Society. Daly's Cabin, 1904 Chuck Whitten scanned this image from his original copy of “Looters of the Public Domain” (1908) by Stephen A.D. Puter from page 147. continued 

18 Header The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 46, No. 6 Member Spotlight in their property boundaries before they have a timber harvest.” The first call that Marcus and I scheduled for this interview, in August, was postponed because Marcus had been sent to an active fire area to monitor the fire’s status. Fires had been confirmed on properties adjacent to properties managed by Cascade Timber Consulting, and they needed to be monitored. “Since the fires were so close to our properties, we had some of our contractors with their By Vanessa Salvia Marcus Helm got into surveying in high school, when he was the type of student who didn’t want to be stuck in class if he didn’t have to be. “One of the classes I took in high school had a part on running level loops,” Marcus recalls. “I spent about two weeks running level loops around the campus in high school.” At the time he thought that was “pretty cool,” and he wanted to study in that area. “The teacher said we could go outside for an hour for every class period while we were outside running loops, and I thought, ‘Cool, I'm not going to be stuck at a desk inside just listening to lectures!’” Being outside and not stuck inside at a desk is something that is appealing for a lot of surveyors, and it is something that Marcus still appreciates about his job. After attending Oregon Institute of Technology in Klamath Falls, Marcus graduated in 2020. Marcus grew up in Galt, California, a city in Sacramento County, and moved to Klamath Falls for school. “And then I stayed,” he said. The closest school to Galt with a surveying degree program was in Fresno, and he considered attending school there which would have been only 2 1/2 hours from home as opposed to 5 1/2 hours away. But he received advice from a high school teacher who encouraged him to attend school in another location. “I was talking to him one day and he said that it was four years of your life and you’d be better off spending those four years seeing something different. He told me, ‘There’s a school in Oregon and I strongly recommend you take the time to go away to college and see what another place is like.’” Marcus says he is “so glad” he listened to his teacher’s advice. After college, Marcus went to work for NorthStar Surveying in Corvallis and lives in the Sweet Home area now, where he works for Cascade Timber Consulting, a timber management company. “We have an in-house surveying team and we survey not only for our lands, but for other lands owned by Weyerhaeuser or other timber companies,” Marcus says. “We put Marcus Helm Cascade Timber Consulting Marcus and his wife, Ashley.