PLSO The Oregon Surveyor March/April 2024

The Oregon March/April 2024 A publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon

Editorials From the PLSO Chair, by Scott Freshwaters, PLS Chair of the Board 2 From the PLSO Office, by Aimee McAuliffe, PLSO Executive Secretary 4 Featured Articles 2024 Photo Contest Winner: Jose Sandoval 7 Quality Control:What is it? by Jim Luke, PLS (Retired) 8 Research 9 Working the Numbers 10 Who's Responsible Here?, by A. Lee 11 Columns The Lost Surveyor, by Pat Gaylord, PLS 6, 15 Surveyors in the News, by Pat Gaylord, PLS 16 Surveying on Horseback, by Jim Luke, PLS (Retired) 17 On the Cover A survey crew (Ali Mizell, Ben Woodcock, and Becca Dunphy) from S & F Land Services, in support of a waterline project in Portland, discovered an unusual protection for a survey monument. The landowners erected the bench and multiple other oddities around the property. In a survey completed in 1960, the “O” on this monument (in the word Portland) was used as a reference point to a nearby PLSS corner. Hence the point of the range pole not in the center of the monument. Photo courtesy of Ali Mizell and Becca Dunphy. The Oregon Surveyor is a publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon (PLSO). It is provided as a medium for the expression of individual opinions concerning topics relating to the Land Surveying profession. Address changes & business All notifications for changes of address, membership inquiries, and PLSO business correspondence should be directed to Aimee McAuliffe, PO Box 230548, Tigard, OR 97281; 503-303-1472; Editorial matters & contributions of material The Oregon Surveyor welcomes your articles, comments, and photos for publication. PLSO assumes no responsibility for statements expressed in this publication. Editorial matters should be directed to Vanessa Salvia, Advertising policy Advertising content and materials are subject to approval of the PLSO Board and LLM Publications. The publisher reserves the right to reject any advertising that simulates copy; material must be clearly marked as “Advertisement.” For advertising, contact: Ronnie Jacko,; 503-445-2234 A publication of the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon Executive Secretary Aimee McAuliffe PO Box 230548 Tigard, OR 97281 503-303-1472 Toll-free: 844-284-5496 Published by LLM Publications 503-445-2220 Advertising Ronnie Jacko, Design Hope Sudol © 2024 LLM Publications Editor Vanessa Salvia Publications Committee Tim Kent, Interim Chair Pat Gaylord Contents Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon @ORLandSurveyors The Oregon Vol. 47, No. 2 March/April 2024

2 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 47, No. 2 From the PLSO Chair MESSAGE FROM THE CHAIR Scott Freshwaters, PLS Chair of the Board I t’s So Bad It’s Good—Or, The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. Now that I have piqued your interest, you are going to read true tales of courage, grit, perseverance along with some foolishness and stupidity, all while seeing the protective hand of Providence. Let’s start with what it means to be in a situation where it is so bad it’s good. I have the honor of surveying for many years with Roy Easter. Roy is a Vietnam War veteran who was wounded in a firefight. He had grit. We would be in some miserable weather or dangerous conditions and he would say, “Laddy Buck, it’s so bad it’s good.” At the time I never knew exactly what he meant, but I must admit I liked the sound of it! Here are some examples of weather conditions where Roy used that phrase. One winter day out at Deschutes Junction where we were finishing up a topographic survey for the Tumalo Road and Deschutes Market Highway overpass and interchange, the snow was extremely wet, and coming down sideways so fast that I had to clear the objective lens on the total station every other shot! To make matters worse, it was one of the numerous days that I had a severe (near migraine) headache. Roy knew about these frequent headaches and was understanding. However, if I could I would push through it. I don’t remember if we actually finished out the day or not. Another instance of bad/good was out near Horse Ridge where a private party had a small parcel that was approved for surface mining with a maximum yardage condition. The planning department was concerned that he had removed more material than his permit allowed. This was also in the winter on a day when it was very close to the freezing mark, but the precipitation again was falling almost sideways and was mostly rain. I was wearing one-half hour gloves while running the instrument. You know what I mean. So, after about 45 minutes when we finished the topo I could barely feel my fingers, plus they started to really, really hurt while we headed back to town. While I was thawing them out with the dash ducts, the pain was so intense I almost started to cry. Roy offered to take me to the emergency room. Fortunately, by the time we made it back to Bend the pain had mostly subsided and my fingers were a normal color. So, I am not saying I have much grit, perseverance, courage, and toughness, but I do know what “it’s so bad it’s good” means now. Also, there is something to be said about how challenges completed successfully can and do build virtuous character traits. Here is a quote from the Book of Romans in Chapter 5 verse 4: “And not only that, but we also glory in tribulations, knowing that tribulation produces perseverance; and perseverance, character; and character, hope.” Another great and well known quote is this from Teddy Roosevelt, commonly called his “Man in the Arena” speech given in Paris, France. “It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles, or where the doer of deeds could have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs, who comes short again and again, because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; but who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions; who spends himself in a worthy cause; who at the best knows in the end the triumph of high achievement, and who at the worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who neither know victory nor

3 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | I am not saying I have much grit, perseverance, courage, and toughness, but I do know what “it’s so bad it’s good” means now. Also, there is something to be said about how challenges completed successfully can and do build virtuous character traits. From the PLSO Chair defeat. Shame on the man of cultivated taste who permits refinement to develop into fastidiousness that unfits him for doing the rough work of a workaday world.” Teddy had “True Grit.” Sounds like a great movie title, eh? Teddy really had grit—he was wounded in an assassination attempt yet went ahead with a scheduled speech. On to the Bad and the Ugly. We’ll start with the survey truck stuck on the railroad tracks at an unauthorized crossing. Just south of Bend is a subdivision named Deschutes River Woods whose eastern boundary is the BNRR tracks. We had an ongoing Road L.I.D. survey in progress and had to do some measuring on the east side of the tracks. So, being the party chief and also being young and foolish I had the “bright” idea to cross the tracks. I mean, what the heck, the truck had tall tires and had no trouble driving up on curbs so the rails should be a piece of cake. Little did I know that this was not one of my better ideas. I was driving and was able to get the front wheels across the front rail, and since we had taken a diagonal approach, one front wheel went over the east-most rail and that was the end of that! We were soundly stuck. You should have seen us scrambling to find items to place under the tires, long heavy limbs for leverage, etc. I think we would have made The Three Stooges proud! Finally, after what seemed like an eternity we were able to drive off the rails. Once while Roy was driving, we were surveying the north end of Fryrear Road at the intersection with Highway 126. We had pulled over off the highway for one of those breaks to drain some coffee, and while we were pulling out onto the highway Roy had failed to check his blind spot and in the blink of an eye we heard a loud bang and we had spun around in the middle of the road! Dazed and confused, we looked over the situation and found the truck was still mobile, so Roy drove us on to the shoulder behind the new F-350 with a newer camper on the back that was towing a boat. While Roy was talking on the cell phone to our supervisor, I walked up to talk to the gentleman who owned the truck. Nobody was injured, but, if we had pulled onto the highway one or two seconds earlier we would have been t-boned at 55 mph and probably would not be here. As if the RR tracks and the Highway 126 incidents aren’t enough, I will spare you the details until another time about the Suburban hill climb up the southerly most Cline Butte, the chainsaw cut on my inner right leg, the full-on sledgehammer blow to my left shin, and walk on a 8"x8" timber across a raging canal. Oh, I almost forgot this one—the crazy drug dealer who held a Gerber Mark I combat knife to my throat as I begged him to spare my life when I was in high school. I attribute my continued existence on this planet to the benevolence of the Almighty God through His son, Jesus Christ. So, you may be ready to ask, Scott, besides being interesting stories, how do these stories apply to surveying? I would say, mainly directed to the Emerging Leaders—some of the positive character traits shown in these stories are virtuous and desirable for all surveyors to have. Another lesson is to never take shortcuts and never, ever get impatient. By the way, feel free to ask me sometime to tell you about the undetailed incidents listed above. I will be happy to visit with you.  How to Send Us Your Work Please email the editor Vanessa Salvia with submissions: Your submission should be in .doc format. Please send images separately (not embedded in the document) and at the highest file size available (MB size range versus KB size range—larger sizes are encouraged). Please include the author’s name and email address or phone number for contact.

4 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 47, No. 2 From the PLSO Office Aimee McAuliffe, PLSO Exec. Secretary Think back to a time in your career when you were the happiest. Chances are, it was when the company you worked for made you feel appreciated, and what you were doing lined up with your values, interests, and skills while also providing a sense of purpose. If you don’t work there anymore, why did you eventually leave? Did the culture change or were there no opportunities for job growth? While we, as a profession, are all working on growing our future workforce by promoting the profession, it’s also important to make sure we build the infrastructure to retain the people we have. As students are entering the workforce, are you too busy to do anything but have them face trial by fire, or are you creating an environment that makes your employees or colleagues want to stay? Improving entry-level employee retention is crucial for organizational stability and growth. Not only is recruiting, hiring, and training new employees costly, but you are losing company knowledge each time an employee leaves for a job at a competing company. Instead of paying for turnover each year, I suggest you commit your resources—whether it be time, money, or effort—towards building a foundation that offers a return on your investment. Here are several strategies to enhance retention among entry-level employees: 1. Effective Onboarding: Implement a process that introduces new hires to the company culture, policies, and procedures. It’s really important to be clear on expectations, responsibilities and processes. All companies should have an employee handbook, which gives a detailed overview of policies that are specific to your organization along with other key procedures, guidelines, and employee benefits. If you run a department and have clear procedures you want followed, I suggest providing this as a supplement to the Employee Handbook. 2. Clear Career Pathways: Offer clear career pathways and development opportunities, such as creating a mentorship program, allowing them to attend the PLSO Conference and participate in the Emerging Leaders and Young Surveyors programs. Mentorship programs are a valuable tool for fostering professional development, knowledge sharing, and employee engagement. Start by clearly defining the objectives and goals you hope to achieve, such as skill development, leadership succession, or fostering a culture collaboration. For a guide to being a mentor check out The Mentorship Guide in the Members Only section of the website here: mbrresources. FROM THE PLSO OFFICE While we, as a profession, are all working on growing our future workforce by promoting the profession, it’s also important to make sure we build the infrastructure to retain the people we have.

5 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | From the PLSO Office 3. Regular Feedback and Recognition: Acknowledge employee efforts, celebrate milestones, and offer constructive feedback to help them improve and grow. Constructive criticism or feedback needs to be respectful, timely, focused on the behavior, not the person, and offers practical solutions. 4. Foster a Positive Work Environment: Create an environment that promotes collaboration, respect, and inclusivity by encouraging open communication, teamwork, and a sense of belonging. A surefire way for this NOT to happen is micromanaging your team. Not only does it limit your effectiveness as the manager by stifling development and growth, but you’re not spending time thinking about higher-level strategic priorities. This makes you look incompetent and creates distrust. 5. Work-Life Balance: Respect employees’ personal time and encourage them to prioritize self-care and well-being. Whether it’s you or your colleagues, stressed out, tired employees make mistakes. Be sure to set boundaries for yourself and respect the ones your colleagues have set. 6. Competitive Compensation and Benefits: Offer competitive compensation and benefits packages to attract and retain talent. Regularly review salary structures, benchmark against industry standards, and consider offering incentives for outstanding performance. 7. Opportunities for Engagement and Socialization: Create opportunities for your team to build relationships and socialize within the organization. Ways to encourage camaraderie may include hosting a company barbecue, running a 5K together, or coordinating a volunteer day where employees volunteer at a local organization or charity. Be sure to choose a cause that resonates with your team and aligns with the image you want for your company. 8. Empowerment and Autonomy: Empower your team members by providing opportunities for decision-making, and encourage them to share ideas, take initiative, and contribute to innovation within their roles. 9. Regular Check-ins and Support: Checking in with your team members or establishing an open-door policy where employees feel comfortable seeking guidance and raising issues with management will create more open communication. 10. Exit Interviews and Feedback: When you do lose a valued employee, be sure to conduct an exit interview for feedback on their reasons for leaving and identify areas for improvement. Then, actually use the information you received without taking it too personally. By implementing strategies along these lines, you will profit from the investment you’ve made in your employees as their experience and skill set grows. PLSO also wants to see our professional community grow strong and vital for the future. It doesn’t just take a village to raise a child, but it also takes one to build strong connections that attract smart, talented future technicians and licensed land surveyors.  Ronnie Jacko 503-445-2234

6 The January/February 2024 issue would have marked my 10th anniversary of writing The Lost Surveyor. Wow, that went by fast! Since that issue was taken up by conference-related material, I didn’t have a chance to publish this special column until now. Sixty stories... I don’t even know how many miles traveled, hours of research and writing, or hours daydreaming about where I was going to find the next article, but it sure has been fun. For this 10th anniversary column, and in honor of Oran Abbot before me, this issue goes back to the original format. Lost surveyor The Question If you were fooling “a round” somewhere in Oregon and found yourself at 43°07’58” North and 118°38’33” West, where would you be? Answer on Page 15. By Pat Gaylord, PLS The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 47, No. 2 The Lost Surveyor

7 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article Jose Sandoval’s photo showing third generation surveyor Hunter Klein was the winning photo of the 2024 annual PLSO conference photo contest. Hunter is the son of Klein & Associates co-owner James Klein. James, along with Jose Sandoval’s older brother Leo Sandoval, took the company over from Anthony Klein years ago. Hunter Klein is the third generation of Kleins surveying in Hood River County. In that picture, the crew was surveying on the Williams natural gas pipeline in Klickitat County, Washington. 2024 Annual PLSO Conference Photo Contest Winner: Jose Sandoval

8 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 47, No. 2 Featured Article Just two words used together that some consider bull. Books have been written about it. Seminars have been conducted on implementing it. Can you think of a project where quality control (QC) was successful? I know we have all seen it fail. How much control do we have to have to get quality? One friend had the QC policy of telling the survey crews to do a good job as they went out the door every day. That was it, nothing more. While that may have worked for some crews, it did not work well for others. Most surveyors I know take some pride in their work. I have even seen the survey crew come back with barely usable data and be proud of their production. Another crew came back with several photos of each photo control point they set and I must admit they were beautiful, but three of them were not visible on the aerial photos. We need to each have some level of QC. I like to think of quality control as follows: Me, asserting a little control to gain quality. Some like the “top down” system of quality control. Others think the “bottom up” system works better. I like a system that says each person does their share. Control what you can and give guidance to others so they can control their share. Is that controlling them? Maybe some would see it that way. But really those of us with lots of experience should be able to guide others through a project without them making each and every mistake. Those of us with less experience should be able to take guidance with the knowledge that we are going to be able to miss many of those mistakes that are waiting to trip us up. There are times that improvement is not just avoiding a mistake, it is using a better procedure. What could be better than all who work on the project watching out for each other to improve the end product? Can the office surveyor do something to make the field survey go easier? Can the field crew do something to make the office work come together better? Do we have room for improvement here? So thinking back to my friend, couldn't the PLS do a little more for the survey crew to offer them a better chance to be successful in their survey work for the day? How many times has the survey crew had to go to the field without all the research completed? Yeah, that works! What about showing up at the project that someone else has been working on and not having a control sketch and there are no lath baskets? Sure Boss, we will be out of here in no time! Or maybe the What is it? office just loaded you up with a file and when setting up on control, the stakeout points don’t match? Thank you, Office! A plot would have been nice and would have shown that it did not work. Well, we could make a long list here (really long). Instead, what I propose is to talk about some of the things we can do which will offer our survey teams a better chance of success on each project. Many of the items are small. Some of them seem insignificant until we look back on what really happened in the office or in the field. Looking back, we see that usually it was expensive to not have quality control. Let’s look at this and see if you can find an improvement for yourself. Remember: • Me, asserting a little control to gain quality. Luke out.  James H. Luke, PLS, USMS, is a currently-retired surveyor living in Portland, Oregon. He started his career in forestry in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, then transitioned to surveying/engineering in Colorado. He held the U.S. Mineral Surveyor appointment by BLM and active registrations in Colorado and Maryland. By Jim Luke, PLS (Retired) Quality Control

9 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article Back in the day...that was when surveyors could not do research was a pleasant work day when the boss gave me a pile of maps and stuff to put a folder together and get everything ready for the survey crew. It was all there and the field crew was going to like this job because it was all set up. I took pride in having all the maps and data ready to go and organized for the survey crew. My boss taught me to look at all the deeds, maps, and comer records to be sure they did not reference another document that we did not have. He wanted three or four benchmark records in case one or two were gone. The precalcs did not always work perfectly, but at least the crew had looking ties to get started. The plot was made and a second copy put in the folder with the coordinate printout for the crew to split up if they needed to. The coordinate file was in the right format to upload and we were ready for field work. The folder even had the job number and a copy of the contract! Remember: Me, asserting a little control to gain quality. Contrast that to the other boss who gave us the deed, the neighbor’s deed, the tract map, and one benchmark record. Well, I guess that was better than the survey crew who got the assessor map with the parcel highlighted and they were stopping by the city on the way to the project to pick up a tract map and a benchmark. Which boss would you rather work for? Which process would “guarantee your success” as the field crew? Is this really a quality control issue? The boss is exerting a little control as to how they would like to have the process work. Even today, with each survey crew having a laptop with internet access so they can look up the city and county records online, the office prep is a big time saver for the field crew. The real kicker is when the crew unexpectedly finds a couple of the boss’s tags. Quality control for sure! Chainman says, “We must have done some surveying here before.” “No kidding, Sherlock!” says the party chief. Phone call to office. Survey tech is asking questions like: “Who did we do the work for?” “What was the project name?” “What was the project number?” “Can you ask them if they have a copy of the survey?” If this happens in your firm, you now have something you can improve so that in the future, the field crew will have the previous data when they show up at the site. This will actually give you an advantage over the competition, so you might as well set yourself up to use this advantage. Of course, we can’t forget the time that the crew had to lay out the drill holes for a project we already did the boundary and topo for. Geotech provides a hardcopy of where the soil tests will be drilled. Office tech adds those locations to our design drawing, assigns the point numbers, plots and prints out the coordinates, and makes a data collector file. Away we go to stake them out using the same GPS as before. Oops. Some of you know where this one is going... Plot does not include control points. Files do not include control points. Field crew knows what to do, sets up base on control, and uses previous control file. Goes to stakeout drill holes. First one falls in house on adjoining subdivision. Crew is checking things out. Can’t find anything wrong with what they did. Goes for second drill hole. Falls in a driveway. Blankety- blank blank-blank! Call to office. Get tech on phone. Ask them to tum on the control points. Right. No match. Oh, who rotated the drawing so that it fit better on the sheet? Who knows? The tech learns to always unfreeze and plot the control points on the precalc plots! Quality control lesson. Crew returns to office and gets new point files, drives back to project and finishes up. I am sure you have plenty of the little things that happen that drive everyone crazy and steal away our efficiency. To say nothing about something getting surveyed wrong in the field or plotted wrong on the maps that we prepare. Recap: • Gather appropriate maps and data. • Precalc Project. • Plot & Upload for Survey Crew. • Set crew up to be successful. Remember: • Me, asserting a little control to gain quality. Luke out.  Research

10 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 47, No. 2 Featured Article Back in the day...that was when surveyors had to do a lot of math...I was trained to do the work in such a way that the least math, the better. The less massaging of the numbers, the better. We worked with lots of numbers. It was easy to read the number incorrectly. It was easy to write the number incorrectly. It was easy to input the number incorrectly. “There was nothing worse than a dyslexic surveyor!” was what we used to say. So is it any different today? The field crew and the office tech do not have to read and write numbers the old way. We all have it made today. It goes from the total station or GPS into the field data file and into the office computer. Much better. Good for quality control. No human mistakes. But wait! I see some surveyors using procedures which will force massaging the data later. So my question is: why would we allow anyone to follow these procedures? I still think that the less massaging of the numbers, the better. Let me tell you what I want. When I pick up some field notes, I want them to match up with the CADD file. Point number 3782 in the notes is point number 3782 in the computer file. The level run elevations are the same as the elevations in the computer file. The raw data coordinates are the same as the computer file coordinates. This sure makes it easier to check later or to answer a question later. Let me tell you this story and you may see what I am talking about...The survey crew goes to a new site. They need elevations. Research shows a benchmark eight blocks away. Stop by on the way to the site and find the benchmark. Paint it up real big so everyone can find it easy—NOT! Proceed to job site and recon it. Set TBM. Break out level, set up notes, call elev. 100.00 and run level loop to BM and Working the Numbers back. Calc level loop. Adjust TBM to BM datum and we are good to go. Any of us could handle these calculations and adjustments, I am sure, but why? Why not start at the benchmark with the correct elevation and complete the level loop? All of the elevations in our notes are on the datum. Good procedure. Did you have a party chief who always used point 1000 and always used elev. 100.00 for topo? (That was my old party chief who found a better job because of all the pressure from his boss!) We had a project down in Hollywood where he used three different tbms that were all elev. 100.00. Could it get any worse? Sure. Hear me out. One setup used Pt 1000 w/elev. 100.00 on the monument in the well. One setup used Pt 1000 w/elev. 100.00 on the lid of the same well. One setup used Pt 1000 w/elev. 100.00 on a L&T in the curb. Why me? What a mess. It was even worse because the actual elevation of the project was 101. See what happens? Good procedure is always good procedure. You can’t beat it. After hours of massaging, we trashed the data and did the field work again. The less massaging of the numbers, the better. Recap: • Start level run at benchmark with real elevation. Remember: • Me, asserting a little control to gain quality. Luke out. 

11 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article Who’s Responsible Here?: Multnomah County Rightof-Way Jurisdiction By A. Lee Untangling a network of public jurisdictions can be a confusing exercise. Not all adjacent or overlapping agencies communicate with each other or have clear records. In the arena of public right-of-way (ROW), there is a mix ranging from clearly defined agreements to unrecorded practices passed on over time that generally result in a largely usable road network, control of impacts, and management of resources. While a complete overview of ROW is too broad of a subject to address here, a closer look at Multnomah County’s (MultCo’s) ROW may be enlightening. Relevance to Surveyors Most low-impact surveying activities in MultCo ROW can be performed without obtaining a MultCo ROW Permit. However, there are considerations to keep in mind on what is an “impact” and some notable exceptions. In addition, as one of the earliest project activities, surveying may be able to provide early, valuable awareness of MultCo presence in order to incorporate subsequent design and construction requirements. In the MultCo road network, an “impact” is any activity that inhibits public use of ROW areas or alters a public asset. These kinds of activities include, but are not limited to, closures to any vehicle lane, shoulder, bike lane, or sidewalk; any trenching or excavation; or damage to pavement, ROW vegetation, or stormwater drainage. If MultCo ROW staff reviews the impacts and determines a ROW Permit is necessary, submittal requirements may include a work plan, traffic control plan, Temporary Pedestrian Access Plan (TPAR), proof of insurance coverage naming MultCo as additional insured, and fee. At this time, if the survey work is identified as being in support of public utilities, then MultCo does not collect any fees per ORS 758.010. An exception to the “impact” approach for MultCo ROW Permitting is for MultCo’s Willamette River Bridges (WRBs), described below. For any work on, under, or adjacent to these structures and embankment approaches as defined in MultCo Road Rules Section 25.000, the proposed activities must be reviewed by MultCo staff and may require a ROW Permit. The MultCo Bridge Operations staff monitor the WRBs at all times in preparation for regular and unscheduled bridge openings, and must be informed of any official presence on the structures. Certain bridges have very specific traffic control requirements due to the relatively narrow clearances set according to the design standards when they were originally built. Another aspect of layered ROW jurisdiction is the varied land use and development codes between MultCo and cities within. Properties and development may be under city jurisdiction by code or intergovernmental agreement, but the ROW jurisdiction may still be with MultCo. There are instances where a land use code will have requirements affecting the ROW, such as driveway access or frontage improvements. These are often communicated between agencies, but sometimes changes in staff or the increasing age of agreements that no longer match the parties’ needs have led to confusion. In addition, the specific clearance and maintenance needs of the WRBs have surprised downtown developers, their consultants, and contractors. Not all parts of various city agencies know to check for a MultCo presence, and most developments are focused on a city’s land use without realizing another entity may be involved. If your project may be affected by the presence of MultCo jurisdiction, please consider notifying your project manager or client. Multnomah County’s Roads and Bridges Without going back too far, the responsibility for the higher road classifications within MultCo was mainly shared between the state and county until 1984, when the city of Portland began to take on formal jurisdiction of all incorporated roads within city limits. It wasn’t a clean break, so there are some road corridors that pass in and out of incorporated Portland, with unincorporated segments remaining under MultCo jurisdiction [Figure 1]. There was a similar transfer to Agreements and boundaries continue to shift over time, adding challenges to the work of surveying. continues 

12 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 47, No. 2 Featured Article Figure 1: Example of changing road jurisdiction between MultCo (in orange) and city of Portland. Figure 2: View of MultCo’s road network, mainly towards the east and west ends of the county.

13 Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | Featured Article Figure 3: View of four out of MultCo’s six large bridges in downtown Portland. Sauvie Island and Sellwood bridges not shown.

14 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 47, No. 2 Featured Article the city of Gresham in 2005. The cities of Troutdale, Fairview, and Wood Village also oversee their own local roads while MultCo retains jurisdiction over their arterials. As a result, MultCo’s road network today is mostly rural [Figure 2].This road network includes approximately 20 local bridges. A unique facet of MultCo’s jurisdiction are the six large bridges collectively called “Willamette River Bridges (WRBs)” internally, although one of these crosses the Multnomah Channel: Sauvie Island Bridge, Broadway Bridge, Burnside Bridge, Morrison Bridge, Hawthorne Bridge, and Sellwood Bridge [Figure 3]. Boundaries of responsibility between city of Portland and MultCo were described in the 1918 City Ordinance No. 33720, and revised in the 1930 City Ordinance No. 58426. When the city of Portland took jurisdiction for their incorporated roads, these structures remained with MultCo to “operate and maintain” as mandated by ORS 382.305. The 1984 City Ordinance No. 156224 defined the county jurisdiction as being “to nearest at grade intersection within the corporate limits of the City of Portland,” which can extend farther than expected. Since then, a variety of agreements, easements, developments, and practical maintenance divisions have adjusted that 1984 definition. Agreements and boundaries continue to shift over time, adding challenges to the work of surveying. If there are any questions or need for clarification, please contact MultCo to discuss or review. MultCo staff is ready to coordinate and work with ROW Permit applicants to ensure all work is performed safely and successfully.  A. Lee is a licensed professional engineer with 16 years of experience in bridge projects, an interest in right-of-way, and a drive to share information. She currently works for Multnomah County’s Transportation Division. ADVERTISING RATES STARTING AT $380! Advertise in The Oregon Surveyor! The Oregon Surveyor is the official magazine for the Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon. It reaches every member of the association and offers a great opportunity to target surveyors with your marketing efforts. continued  MultCo ROW Resources • Map of MultCo roads: • Map of MultCo bridges: • MultCo’s WRB permitting info: • General MultCo ROW Permitting info:

15 Located southeast of Burns at the north end of Steens Mountain you will find the Peter French Round Barn State Heritage Site. Constructed in the 1880s by the cattle baron Peter French, the barn is actually a corral and training area for horse and mule teams. The interior stone walls are 63 feet in diameter while the outer ring enclosed by the wood exterior walls extends the total diameter to approximately 100 feet. The inner space was used for tending livestock and the outer space was Answer used in the winter as an indoor training facility for horse and mule teams that were used on the ranch. The barn has stood the test of time and is a statement to the ingenuity of one of Oregon’s most notable pioneers and ranchers. To read more about Peter French’s Round Barn, follow the QR code to the Oregon Encyclopedia.  Interior roof and center post. The barn has been re-roofed three times, most recently in 2010. The Peter French Round Barn located approximately 50 miles southeast of Burns, Oregon. Interior livestock corral and holding area. Professional Land Surveyors of Oregon | The Lost Surveyor

16 The Oregon Surveyor | Vol. 47, No. 2 Surveyors in the News By Pat Gaylord, PLS As we all are aware, some land surveyors, or those posing to be land surveyors, have not always been the most honest in representing our profession. From The Daily Astorian of 1877, Mr. Edwin Murray is one of those who took advantage of the trust the public instills in us. However, as we see here, maybe we shouldn’t always trust the public either. The Daily Astorian October 7, 1877 Expert Swindling Edwin Murray, a witness in the trial of London detectives for conspiracy, incidentally testified as to his experience in swindling in America. One of his schemes he described as follows: “I started with Walters, who appeared as an English gentleman supplying capital to Americans respecting the purchase of lands. I was a land surveyor. I used to go and survey their land to see if it was proper security for Walters to lend his money on. I used to give the Americans to understand that, if my hand was properly weighted, I would send in a proper report to him. I led them to understand that I was open to bribery. I found as a rule they would have victimized the ‘English gentlemen’ if they could. I always find that people are most easily duped when they are laying themselves open to dupe others. We used to make about 400 a day. It did not, however, last long. After I had done with the clients, I passed them on to Walters. He used to tell them that the report received was perfectly satisfactory. But as an additional security he wished them to insure their lives. He would say that in many instances he had found that people to whom they had lent money had died, and their creditors had to sell off their property, leaving their families destitute. So we got a percentage on the policies.”  ?p Bs&JIXJ &&l8XXMl ASTORIA. OREGON: D. C. IRELAND Etlitor. SUNDAY - Oct. 7, 1S77 Greenbacks. A Sacramento paper in noticing the circumstances that greenbacks are but three per cent below gold, asks very pertinently, "why not bring them to par by accepting them for customs?" The affairs of the country are now in such a state that paper could be made equal in value to gold, with but little difficulty. There is but one disturbing element, and that is the unsettled question relative to silver coin. If silver coin were made equal in value of gold coin, resumption would take place almost without further effort. Good News to Farmers. If the Santa Rosa Democrat is correct in its statements, a "Mr. Bryant has at last discovered a squirrel exterminator which will preclude further legislation against the rodent pests. He compounds a pellet which has as its chief ingredient a deadly drug, so sugar-coate- d as to be a dainty morsel to its victims. He is now traveling over the country, taking contracts to kill all the squirrels on a farm for somuch an acre, eight cents in the mountains and five cents in the valleys. He passes by their burrows, drops in a few grains of his exterminator, and in a few moments the squirrels lie dead in all directions. It is said that a squirrel will eat a grain containing the poison, pick up another, and die with it m its paws. Mr. Bryant's terms are moderate, and if he can do all that is here related he will be hailed as a public benefactor in all the squirrel-infeste- d regions. Expert Swindling. Edwin Murray, a witness in the trial of London detectives for conspiracy, incidentally testified as to his experience in swindling in America. One of his schemes he described as follows: "I started with Walters, who appeared as anEnglish gentleman supplying capital to Americans respecting the purchase of lands. I was a land surveyor. I used to go and survey their land to see if it was proper security for Walters to lend his money on. I used to give the Americans to understand that, if my hand was properly weighted, I would send in a proper report to him. I led them to understand that I was open to bribery. I found as a rule they would have victimized the 'English gentlemen' if they could. I always find that people are most easily duped when they are laying themselves open to dupe others. We used to make about 400 a day. It did not, however, last long. After I had done vith the clients I passed them on to Walters. He used to tell them that the report received was perfectly satisfactory. But as an additional security he wished them to insure their lives. He would say that in many instances he had found that people to whom the had lent money had died, and their creditors had to sell oft their property, leaving their tamilies destitute. So we got a percentage on the policies." The Sword Swallower Beaten. A convict in the Gundagai jail in Australia, undergoing a term of imprisonment for stealing a ring, used to gain a living by traveling from town to town giving performances in which he offered to swallow any article his audience might select. The ring for the stealing of which he had been convicted he had swallowed, and he asserted he could swallow a bagful if he got them. The prisoner is at present being treated by the visiting surgeon to the jail, with the view of making him disgorge a steel Albert chain and a large brass ring. The chain can be distinctly felt at the bottom of the stomach, and the patient says he swa lowed it nine months airo, and tht it is the only article he has hadany difficulty about. He avers that.fte has had two pounds' weight of jeelry in his stomach at one time, and that he lias harbored watches in that viscus a. collection of Albert chains, penknives, brass rings, &c, which he asserted he had succeeded in causin"-thprisoner to vomit by means of emetics. Note from Vierge. Sax Francisco, October 2, 1877. Editor Astorian: When I sailed from Astoria on that ever to be remembered summer evening, I promised myself many and frequent communings with my faiihful little friend the Daily Astorian, but the days drop sleepily into the arms of n;ght, until the arecounted off a? beads upon the rosary of the year, and I have been mute. Tidings come to us of the rains which distil upon you in unwished for abundance, vvhile here we aredving of thirst the trees shrink beneath their dusty mantle upon the wide, treeless valleys is found no green thing, and the hiils me levereu orows up into the pitiless noon ! Not a drop of rain since earlv May ! Can wc not trulv sav Ave liumrer and thirst? that we look with satisfac tion upon the prospect of an early and abundantly wet winter? The watchful and observant tell us that the birds have commenced to fly southward, and the water rat is buildinc his nest in the bushes, instead of the border of the rivulets. With a fervent prayer we wish for rain good, long, steady rains, all over cur lands from Columbia's waters, unto the torrid plains of tropic Mexico-sn- ow on the mountain tops to send the rivers of the valleys dancing to the sea all the long, rainless summer through. Out of such abundant wetness is born the promising child Prosperity laughing and healthy limbed not the sickly faced starveing which comes to our hearthstone begotten of this, our unhappy year ! In ''The Seasons," by your Clatsop Bui ns, as published by 'the Chico, California, Enterprise, the types made our bard say in last stanza of second verse, weed instead of: The milk maid trips. I append an effusion forwarded to me for criticism, which bein so purelylocal, ought as an act of courtesy to be introduced to the world under the patronage of Western Oregon's able defender the sterling Daily Astorian. Vierge. Vision of Xcknnikuin. Low lump the clouds, and the south winds arc )rjjjfr Sullenly breaks the rude surf on the main : Leaden lined dew drops on thegreen turf are lying : The trees weep with moisture in pearl drops of rain. Brown flows the stream that was wont like a mirror To reflect the proud forms of the comely and brave ; Nowa loneliness broods o'er its breast like a terror, And all is as silent and still as the grave. They are gone ! The forms of the comely and manly ; Lost in the distance the musical hum, Of thesilvery laugh, and childhood's blithe prattle, From the jreenjshady banks of fairXckani-ku-m. I miss the bright glance from fair midnight eyes beaming Of the sylph-lik- e forms that haunted the .shore The light boat with joyful humanity teeming, Like a swallow skims over its bosom no more. Hard beats the rain that the clouds are distilling, "With ominous rattle on shingle and pane; And dimare my eyes with briny tears swelling, At the thoughts that we may never all meet again. for twenty-fou- r hours. The jailor has Prescript; But Hope, like the bright slender streak In the morning "With the clear eye of faithbids us patiently wa't. For sunshine and flowers the rich landscape adorning Then on thy green margin once more all elate. I'll see the loved forms of my braves and dusk maidens, Or list in the distance the musical hum Of the silvery laugh or childhood's gay prattle, 'Long the deep shady lanes byf the Nekani-ku- m. John Thomas. Clatsop, Oregon, Aug. 24, 1877, Nekanikum is the Indian name of the stream which flows through Clatsop plains, and upon its bank is situated the Sea Side House and Summer House of this favorite watering place of the polite element of Oregon social life. Canary Birds. for sale at Parker bouse baths. AGood Run. Thesteamships Ancon and City of Chester came in yesterday in a very companionable manner, bot.i making a landing at the same moment. Black Diamonds. The Ilenriette, Iorth German bark, recently discharging coal at Capt Flarel's wharf went up to'Portland yesterday to dispose of the balance of her black diamonds. Ship-master- 's Heading Room. Mr. Peter Wiliielm has permanently fitted up a shipmaster's readiim room in connection with the Gem saloon in Astoria. The latest shipping papers and homeward and outward bound shipping lists are kept on tile. Telegraph office next door. BORX. Jn this city, Oct. 5, 1877, to tho wife of Max "Wagner, a, daughter. SETY ADVERTISEMENTS. --pjlt. 1. M.VEX .JE . . 5rt GraduaifefCniversit Officjf,fRoom& i,At2fiEarsJJUlLD1t Jr i Astoria;? Win E DE ASTfKIA. to- i Carries a fui JL. N. . f Pennsylvania. No. 7 and 2 JO. CASS MENT, KUdGIST. Sm - - ORCGOX, tsortmont of Drfes, Patent Medicines, PJSNTS, IL, AND GLASS. dWfiUed STKEET Oregon. with care Day or Night. est Manufacturer of Fwhorraon's "Rolief. A 8ii ro preventative of Chapped 11ands, and cure for Ffch Wounds. CB"Deinents Florida Wator, price 50 cents. NEW ADVERTISEMENTS. mSCELLANEOUS. AUCTION SALES. PACIFIC MUTUAL Life Insurance Company OF CALIFORNIA. J. C. CAJIROTiTj .. President Geo. A. HOOKE .Vice President ASSETS GILO COW BASIS $1,300,000 Total Death claims paid, over - 700,000 HOME OFFICE, 41 SECOND STREET, SACK.UIEXTO, CALIFOKMA. BRANCH OFFICE ASTORIA, OREGON. OFFICERS: I. "NV. CASE President C. S. WRIGHT Vice President C. RRO VX Secretary J. Q. A. BOWLDY Attorney 31. 1). JEXXLXGS. . .Medical Examiner executive committee: R. R. SPEDDEX, C. J. TREXC1TARD D. K. WARREN. J.W. GEARIIART, R. ALEXANDER. directors: t. y. case, cs. wrigitt, C. BROWN, J. W. GEAR1 1ART, R. ALEXAXDER, R. R. SPEDDEX, C. J.TREXCIIARD M. D. JEXXIXGS, C. P. UPSHUR. W. II. TWILIGHT, D. K. WARREN, J. Q. A. BOWLBY. F. D. WINTON. 1 1. P. GEARIIART, C. A. McGUIRE, Applications for Insurance may be made to any member of the Hoard. All receipts of this olllce loaned in Astoria. No provision for our heirs is adequate that is not immediate, for death may be Innne-- iiiaie. Life Insurance tends to reduce taxation by its reduction of pauperism and possibility of crime. It is a national blessing and w ill at no distant day be universally adopted. The Life Insurance companies of the country disbursed over S7C,ooo,ooo to their patrons in 1S7C. Death Claims, Dividends and Matured Endowments. Policies issued by the Tacific Mutual are free fromthe usual rertrictions on travel. C. BROWN, Resident Agent. C. IV. CAREY, General Agent, Salem, Ogn. A. II COYALT, Portland. Oregon, General Manager Northwestern Department. Astoria, October 2, 1S77. 3m new stoke: New Goods! New Prices!! J. STRAUSS, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in Groceries, Tropical and Domestic Emits; also, Crockery, Glassware, Silverware, Table andPocket Cutlery. Afull line of Willow-war- e always on hand; a full stock of Cigars and Tobacco, "Wines and Liquors. Parties in need of the above line of goods'" will consult their own interest by calling before purchasing elsewhere. Prices lower than any other house in the City. SOUTH SIDE OF CUENAMUS STREET, ASTORIA, OREGON. fGoods delivered to any part of the City Free of Charge NEW GOODS! HEW PRICES! GEORGE W. CORNART, Is constantly receiving the finest assortment OF BLANK LOOKS. STATIONERY, OFFICE FIXTURES AND NOTIONS. ALLTILELATEST PUBLICATIONS OF SHEET MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. Agent for Sborman & Hyde's Pianos and Orpins sold on Installments. ALSO FINE IMrOKTED AND DOMESTIC CIGARS AND TOBACCO, CONSTANTLY ON HAND. North side of Clienamus street, between Cass and Mam - - - Astoria. Ojiegox. INTERPRETER. The undersigned Is familiar with the llussinu, Norwegian. Swedish and other languages, and oners his services to the public as an interpreter In suits at law. contracts, etc, in which lorcigners aim citizens irom the north of Europe who cannot speak Eng lish well, are interested. CHARLES HARRISON, Astona. rnoWHOMITAIAY CONCERN. Notice is hereby given that all persons are forbid tresspassing upon, or in any way occupying anv portion of the land or beach surrounding TONGUE POINT, or upon any part of the jlenry Marlin land claim in Clatsop county, Suite of Oregon, without permission from the undersignec' ; and also from settingout tires upon said claim, wherebv the standing timber may in anv way be injured. VAN DUSE.sT &BROWN. Per A. VAn'Dusen--. Astoria, Oct. 5, 1877. tf Great Reduction IX IE 3EX. ICES!! THE PIONEER "Root &shoE ST03EIE Corner of Cass and Squemocqha streets. ASTORIA, OREGOX. FOR THE XEXT THIRTY DAYS I WILL SELL ALL MY LARGE STOCK OF Mens', Boys', Ladies', Misses and Children's BOOTS ANDSHOES Afc a considerable reduction from previous prices, many kinds AT COST ! C.J, SMITH, Prop, BUY XOXE BUT THIS XJV IMPROVED FLORENCE SEWING MACHINE,' P the WORLD For sale at the CITY BOOK STORE. J. H. D. GRAY, "Wholesale and retail FLOUR, FEED, OATS, HAY, STJSAW, WOOB, etc., Also wholesale dealer in Shoalwater Bay OYSTERS, Received fresh fromthe bed four times a week. On the wharf foot of Benton street, Astoria. Oregon. OREGON BAKERY, Uolladay's "Wharf, Main Streot, AstoriaOga. BREAD, CAKES, PIES, PASTRY, CRACKERS,ETC. BESERVED TOPATRONS WILLthe Oregon Bakery of which C. Binder decoased, was p7oprietor, the-sai- o as usual, by Mrs. CHARLES B1NDEK. First Class Baker employed, and perfect satisfaction guaranteed. All orders, large or small, promptly filled on short notice. Patronage of tho public is respectfully solicited. MRS. C1IAS. BINDER. "OATHS, BATHS, Hot. Cold. Shower, Steam and niBfrrm SULPHUR Baths Occident Hotel Shaving Saloon. NlEDERAUEK, &. UllLENllART, Pkopxietoks. OtB" Special attention paid to LADIES' and CHILDREN'S HAIRCUTTING 5)"PiIvato Entrance for Ladies Q BUILDING MATERIALS. JUST ARRIVED: 40,000 BRICK; 100 WINDOWS ; AND 200 DOORS ; WHICH WILL BE SOLD AS LOW AS ANY HOUSE IN OREGON. BAIN Jk FERGUSON, Astoria, Oregon. lap aijarriage Stop. Squemocqha street, between Washington and Polk streets. ASTORTA OREGON IIEXItY UAMQU,rroiirIctor. promptly attended to none. but the best material used. All work Ts,Blacksmithing and ship work promptly attended to. CANDY FACTORY. rpiieuxdeitsjgxkp take pleasure to x announce to theilt patrons and dealers in general that they have lately largely increasedtheir fac- tory and ark now prepared furnish as good an assortment in their lineas any house onthe coast. Special inducements to cash P. O. Box 04. in to AlilSKY fc Iir.GEI,E, 105 Yirst Street. Factory ou Aider Street, between First and Second Street, Portland, Oregon. Astoria Brewery Saloon And Bottled Beer Depot ! MAIN STREET, ASTORIA. RUDOLPJI BARTJT, MICHAEL MYJSRS, Proprietors TheBest Quality Lager Beer, FIVE CENTS A GLASS. EST The patronage of tho public is respect-- , fully solicited. Orders for Lager, or BoUled Beer, in any quantity, promptly filled. 5 Tree Lunch day and uisht. E. C. HOLDEN, AUCTIONEER and COMMISSIONAGENT CHEXAMUSST. ASTORIA, OREGOX. Consignments ro?pectfully solicited, bills collected and returns promptly made. Refill nr Sales Day. Saturday, Refer by permission to CS. WRIGHT' WARREN k McGUIRE Hon--. J. Q. A. BOWLBY A. VAX DUSEX, J.W. GEARIIART. E. C. 2IOIIEX. Auctioneer. B, S. "WOKSLEY. AUCTION & COMMISSION MERCHANT. Office, on Alain street opposite Washingto .Market-- SATJBS IX1IT.X Froin 7 to 0 o'clock P. AT. Regular Sales Day, Saturday, at 10 O'CSocIc A. 31- - Will purehaso and soil real estate, merchandise, furniture, etc. Consignments respectfully solicited. Diagrams and terms to be bad on application to the Auctioneer. R.H. CARDWELL. B.S. WOKSLEY HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS. C.II.PERKLVS JParlier Souse Hotel, corner .nam anu loncomiy streets, ASTORIAOREGON. Card-wel- l & Perkins, Proprietors-- THIS ISTHE LARGEST HOTEL IN AS new and now furniture, furnished in first class st3le. Tho table will bo supplied witb the bet tho market affords. Accomodations to suit tho times, from SI 23 to ?2n0 per day. fclcamers and sail boats leave tho wharves and slips near tho Hotel, daily for Fort Stevens, Fort Canby, Skipaoon, Fort Clatsop-SeSide, Ocean Beach, Knappton, Chinook. Unity, Oysterville and other places f rcsor: in thi3 vicinity. ( cSTThcro aro now fire largo salmon canneries in Astoria, which employ ovc 1200 persons in tho various brandies of tho busine: . making Astoria as it now is, a point of interest to visitors, independent of its cool invigorating, summer climate. UNION HOUSE. Cor. Squemocqha and Lafayette Stueefe, ASTOEIA, OREGON- - rjlHIS HOUSE HAVING BEEN X newly ed and furnished throughout is now open to the accommodation of the public. J5The house beinj; in new hands now can guarantee satisfaction. Roard ami Lodging per Week $5 0 ISonrd per lVcelc . 4 00 MRS. M. E. TUKXER. rwShrietress. Private Lo Mrs. J. W. MUfr CHEXAMUS Choice Booms ( the Month, D reason& dteESbusej. S . V-- V X futaifltedXta let ess? ary fWM, at X ileHjrJcesin OCCIDENT HOTEL, A. J. MEGLER, C. S. "WRIGHT, Proprietors. Astoria, Oregon. Tho Proprietors aro happy to aaaouncs tha tho abovo Hotel has been Repainted and; Refurnished, Adding greatly to tho comfort of its guest? AND ISNOWTHEBEST HOTEL NORTH OF SAN FRANCISCO. OYSTERS 1 Nyfrvprietress. i..asfeiv wOYSTERS I SERVED IN EVERY STYLE AT SIOEEItS CONFECTIONERY AND Refreshment Saloon. All kinds of French, German and Anierienu Candies constantly on hand, wholesale and retail afc the lowest cash. pnTt' ALSO Wedding cakes made to order oashart notice-Th- e patronage g the public is-- resentfully solicited. CENTRAL COFFEE SALOON. Concomly sL, between Beaton andLalayettev ASTORIA,. OREGON. THOMAS SIcFASIlND, Prop. pAUFORNM RESTAURANT 1VATER STREET ROADWAY. Opposite Oiegoa Steam Navigation Cempanyr3 Wharf ASTORIA OREGON Tho above new Restaurant will bo opera from and after Sunday. January 7th, lbTti, D. RUSAJS'ICU Jc CO. Proprietor?. E. C. HOLDEN". i.'J L. LAUGHERY. HOLDEN & LAUGHERY, TJPHOIiSXEREKS AXI FURNITURE DEAIiERS, At tho old Ftana-1I0LI- EXS AUCTION ROOMS on Chenamus street All kinds of upholstery and cabinet work done-torder. Manufacturers of Lounges, Spring Beds,, AND Of any sizo and quality H Picture Frames and Furniture Manufactured or Repaired by Experienced Workmen. BSTSecond hand Furnituro bought and sold.. D. K. WAKKE.V. CA-McGui- Astoria Market ! Corner of Chenamus and Cassstreets ASTORIA. OitEGON. WARREN & McGUIRE, Proprietors (Successors to Ilobion it Warren,) "Wholesale and Retail Dealers in all kindsof Freshand Cured Meats! Afull line of Family Groceries, CANNED FRUIT, VEGETABLES, ETC. "Buttor, Eggs, Cheese, etc. djin&tantlx on hand, 45S Ships supplied at the Io;vGstrates W 4